Evaluation of a Mesoscale Model with Different Surface Parameterizations and Vertical Resolutions for the Bay of Valencia

Hinnerk Ries Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Search for other papers by Hinnerk Ries in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
K. Heinke Schlünzen Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Search for other papers by K. Heinke Schlünzen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Two different setups of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) are used and the results of 71 forecasts are evaluated with a focus on the accuracy of meteorological surface data including wind, temperature, dewpoint temperature, and pressure. The forecasts, which cover the Valencia coastal region with a 3-km grid, are nested into two coarser grids of 9- and 27-km mesh size. The integration time is 18 h. The ability to correctly simulate the sea breeze plays a major role for this area. Different model setups are used: in the M1 simulations 34 atmospheric vertical sigma levels combined with a five-layer land surface model (5L LSM) are applied for the first half of the year 2006. In total, 52 atmospheric vertical sigma levels and the Noah LSM are used for the second half of 2006 (setup M2). The accuracy improves for all meteorological parameters except pressure with the M2 setup. However, negative biases of temperature, dewpoint temperature, and wind speed worsen. Detailed analysis of results for 4 days simulated with all combinations of vertical resolutions and LSMs shows that the increase of vertical resolution is responsible for the improved forecast performance. The Noah LSM generally improves temperature performance, but reduces the performance of all other parameters, especially for days with sea-breeze conditions. The Noah LSM performs better than the 5L LSM scheme only for a day driven by synoptic changes.

Publisher's Note: This article was revised on 26 February 2024 to update the corresponding author’s email address and to revise part of the Acknowledgments.

Corresponding author: Hinnerk Ries, hinni.ries@gmail.com

Abstract

Two different setups of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) are used and the results of 71 forecasts are evaluated with a focus on the accuracy of meteorological surface data including wind, temperature, dewpoint temperature, and pressure. The forecasts, which cover the Valencia coastal region with a 3-km grid, are nested into two coarser grids of 9- and 27-km mesh size. The integration time is 18 h. The ability to correctly simulate the sea breeze plays a major role for this area. Different model setups are used: in the M1 simulations 34 atmospheric vertical sigma levels combined with a five-layer land surface model (5L LSM) are applied for the first half of the year 2006. In total, 52 atmospheric vertical sigma levels and the Noah LSM are used for the second half of 2006 (setup M2). The accuracy improves for all meteorological parameters except pressure with the M2 setup. However, negative biases of temperature, dewpoint temperature, and wind speed worsen. Detailed analysis of results for 4 days simulated with all combinations of vertical resolutions and LSMs shows that the increase of vertical resolution is responsible for the improved forecast performance. The Noah LSM generally improves temperature performance, but reduces the performance of all other parameters, especially for days with sea-breeze conditions. The Noah LSM performs better than the 5L LSM scheme only for a day driven by synoptic changes.

Publisher's Note: This article was revised on 26 February 2024 to update the corresponding author’s email address and to revise part of the Acknowledgments.

Corresponding author: Hinnerk Ries, hinni.ries@gmail.com

Save
  • Beran, J., L. Calveri, B. Lange, and L. von Bremen, 2005: Offshore wind modelling and forecast. Proc. Sixth WRF/15th MM5 Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR, 1–6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bogenschutz, P. A., 2004: Skill assessment and benefits on applying the new weather research and forecast model to national weather forecast operations. M.S. thesis, The Florida State University, 164 pp. [Available online at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11122004-131729/].

  • Chen, F., and J. Dudhia, 2001a: Coupling an advanced land surface–hydrology model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 569585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, F., and J. Dudhia, 2001b: Coupling an advanced land surface–hydrology model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part II: Preliminary model validation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 587604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colby Jr., F. P., 2004: Simulation of the New England sea breeze: The effect of grid spacing. Wea. Forecasting, 19 , 277286.

  • Colle, B. A., J. B. Olson, and J. S. Tongue, 2003: Multiseason verification of the MM5. Part I: Comparison with the Eta model over the central and eastern United States and impact of MM5 resolution. Wea. Forecasting, 18 , 431457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cox, R., B. L. Bauer, and T. Smith, 1998: A mesoscale model intercomparison. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79 , 265283.

  • Deardorff, J. W., 1978: Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture, with inclusion of a layer of vegetation. J. Geophys. Res., 83 , 18891902.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Foy, B., L. Molina, and M. Molina, 2006: Satellite-derived land surface parameters for mesoscale modelling of the Mexico City basin. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6 , 13151330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deutscher Wetterdienst, 1998: Beobachterhandbuch für Wettermeldestellen des synoptisch-klimatologischen Mess- und Beobachtungsnetzes (Observers Handbook for Stations of the Synoptic and Climatologic Measurement and Observation Network). 3rd ed. Deutscher Wetterdienst, 34 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudhia, J., 1996: A multi-layer soil temperature model for MM5. Proc. Sixth PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR, 1–6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebert, E. E., 2008: Fuzzy verification of high-resolution gridded forecasts: A review and proposed framework. Meteor. Appl., 15 , 5164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fock, B. H., 2007: METRAS als Grobstruktursimulationsmodell. Diploma thesis, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Hamburg, 89 pp. [Available online at http://www.mi.uni-hamburg.de/fileadmin/files/Diplomarbeit_Fock.pdf].

  • Gangoiti, G., M. Millan, R. Salvador, and E. Mantilla, 2001: Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area. Atmos. Environ., 35 , 62676276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grell, G. A., J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, 1995: A description of the fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, 122 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hack, J., B. Boville, B. Briegleb, J. Kiehl, P. Rasch, and D. Williamson, 1993: Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-382+STR, 122 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, J-S., 2003: Evaluation of the high-resolution model forecasts over the Taiwan area during GIMEX. Wea. Forecasting, 18 , 836846.

  • Hong, S., and H. Pan, 1996: Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 23222339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kain, J., 2004: The Kain–Fritsch convective parameterization: An update. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 170181.

  • Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, and W. Baker, 1990: Global numerical weather prediction at the National Meteorological Center. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71 , 14101428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kottmeier, C., P. Palacio-Sese, N. Kalthoff, U. Corsmeier, and F. Fiedler, 2000: Sea breeze and coastal jets in southeastern Spain. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 17911808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miao, J-F., D. Chen, and K. Borne, 2007: Evaluation and comparison of Noah and Pleim–Xiu land surface models in MM5 using GÖTE2001 data: Spatial and temporal variations in near-surface air temperature. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46 , 15871605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Millan, M., R. Salvador, E. Mantilla, and G. Kallos, 1997: Photooxidant dynamics in the Mediterranean basin in summer: Results from European research projects. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 88118823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Millan, M., J. Sanz, R. Salvador, and E. Mantilla, 2002: Atmospheric dynamics and ozone cycles related to nitrogen deposition in the western Mediterranean. Environ. Pollut., 118 , 167186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olerud, D., and A. Sims, 2003: MM5 sensitivity modeling in support of VISTAS (Visibility Improvement—State and Tribal Association): Task 2e deliverable. VISTAS Technical Analysis Workgroup, NC Division of Air Quality, 112 pp. [Available online at http://www.baronams.com/projects/VISTAS/reports/VISTAS_TASK2e_draft.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perez-Landa, G., P. Ciais, M. J. Sanz, B. Gioli, F. Miglietta, J. L. Palau, G. Gangoiti, and M. Millan, 2006: Mesoscale circulations over complex terrain in the Valencia coastal region, Spain—Part 1: Simulation of diurnal circulation regimes. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7 , 18351849.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reisner, J., R. Rasmussen, and R. Bruintjes, 1998: Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124 , 10711107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Romero, R., C. Doswell, and R. Riosalido, 2001: Observations and fine-grid simulations of a convective outbreak in northeastern Spain: Importance of diurnal forcing and convective cold pools. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 21572182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schlünzen, K. H., and J. J. Katzfey, 2003: Relevance of sub-grid-scale land-use effects for mesoscale models. Tellus, 55A , 232246.

  • Seneviratne, S. I., D. Lüthi, M. Litschi, and C. Schär, 2006: Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443 , 205209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tonnesen, G., and Coauthors, 2005: 2004 interim report for the Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP) Regional Modeling Center (RMC). WGA Contract 30203, 276 pp. [Available online at http://pah.cert.ucr.edu/aqm/308/reports/final/2004_RMC_interim_report_final.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trigo, I., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg, 1999: Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region. J. Climate, 12 , 16851696.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, X. M., W. S. Lin, L. M. Yang, R. R. Deng, and H. Lin, 2007: A numerical study of influences of urban land-use change on ozone distribution over the Pearl River Delta region, China. Tellus, 59B , 633641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warner, T. T., B. E. Mapes, and M. Xu, 2003: Diurnal patterns of rainfall in northwestern South America. Part II: Model simulations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 813829.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, Y., Y-L. Chen, and F. M. Fujioka, 2005: Numerical simulations of the island-induced circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 36933713.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhong, S., and J. Fast, 2003: An evaluation of the MM5, RAMS, and Meso-Eta models at subkilometer resolution using VTMX field campaign data in the Salt Lake Valley. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 13011322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 4 4 0
Full Text Views 264 66 15
PDF Downloads 143 33 0