• Bender, M. A., I. Ginis, and Y. Kurihara, 1993: Numerical simulations of tropical cyclone–ocean interaction with a high-resolution coupled model. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 23 24523 263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berg, R., 2002: Tropical cyclone intensity in relation to SST and moisture variability: A global perspective. Preprints, 25th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, San Diego, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 16C.3. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/37899.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, W. J., and T. D. Dickey, 2008: Observations and analyses of upper ocean responses to tropical storms and hurricanes in the vicinity of Bermuda. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08009, doi:10.1029/2007JC004358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brand, S., 1971: The effects on a tropical cyclone of cooler surface waters due to upwelling and mixing produced by a prior tropical cyclone. J. Appl. Meteor., 10, 865874.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, S. W., and R. V. Madala, 1980: Numerical simulation of the influence of sea surface temperature on translating tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 26172630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, S. S., J. F. Price, W. Zhao, M. A. Donelan, and E. J. Walsh, 2007: The CBLAST-Hurricane Program and the next-generation fully coupled atmosphere–wave–ocean models for hurricane research and prediction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 311317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cione, J. J., and E. W. Uhlhorn, 2003: Sea surface temperature variability in hurricanes: Implications with respect to intensity change. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 17831796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cione, J. J., P. Molina, J. Kaplan, and P. G. Black, 2000: SST time series directly under tropical cyclones: Observations and implications. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Fort Lauderdale, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1A.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D’Asaro, E. A., T. B. Sanford, P. P. Niiler, and E. J. Terrill, 2007: Cold wake of Hurricane Frances. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15609, doi:10.1029/2007GL030160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dash, P., A. Ignatov, Y. Kihai, and J. Sapper, 2010: The SST Quality Monitor (SQUAM). J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 27, 18991917.

  • Davis, C., and Coauthors, 2008: Prediction of landfalling hurricanes with the Advanced Hurricane WRF model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 19902005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K., 2001: Contribution of tropical cyclones to meridional heat transport by the oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 14 77114 781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K., C. DesAutels, C. Holloway, and R. Korty, 2004: Environmental control of tropical cyclone intensity. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 843858.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fisher, E. L., 1958: Hurricanes and the sea-surface temperature field. J. Meteor., 15, 328333.

  • Hart, R. E., 2011: An inverse relationship between aggregate Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclone activity and subsequent winter climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L01705, doi:10.1029/2010GL045612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hart, R. E., R. N. Maue, and M. C. Watson, 2007: Estimating local memory of tropical cyclones through MPI anomaly evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 39904005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hazelworth, J. B., 1968: Water temperature variations resulting from hurricanes. J. Geophys. Res., 73, 51055123.

  • Jansen, M. F., R. Ferrari, and T. A. Mooring, 2010: Seasonal versus permanent thermocline warming by tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L03602, doi:10.1029/2009GL041808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knapp, K. R., and M. C. Kruk, 2010: Quantifying interagency differences in tropical cyclone best-track wind speed estimates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 14591473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knapp, K. R., M. C. Kruk, D. H. Levinson, and E. J. Gibney, 2009: Archive compiles new resource for global tropical cyclone research. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 90, 46, doi:10.1029/2009EO060002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leipper, D. F., 1967: Observed ocean conditions and Hurricane Hilda, 1964. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 182196.

  • Lin, I., and Coauthors, 2003: New evidence for enhanced primary production triggered by tropical cyclone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1718, doi:10.1029/2003GL017141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, I., C.-C. Wu, and I.-F. Pun, 2008: Upper-ocean thermal structure and the western North Pacific category 5 typhoons. Part I: Ocean features and the category 5 typhoons’ intensification. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 32883306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, I., I.-F. Pun, and C.-C. Wu, 2009: Upper-ocean thermal structure and the western North Pacific category 5 typhoons. Part II: Dependence on translation speed. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 37443757.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, N. B., 1996: The wake of Hurricane Felix. Int. J. Remote Sens., 17, 28932895.

  • Price, J. F., 1981: Upper ocean response to a hurricane. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 153175.

  • Price, J. F., J. Morzel, and P. P. Niiler, 2008: Warming of SST in the cool wake of a moving hurricane. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07010, doi:10.1029/2007JC004393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, R. W., T. M. Smith, C. Liu, D. B. Chelton, K. S. Casey, and M. G. Schlax, 2007: Daily high-resolution blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 20, 54735496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sandery, P. A., G. B. Brassington, A. Craig, and T. Pugh, 2010: Impacts of ocean–atmosphere coupling on tropical cyclone intensity change and ocean prediction in the Australian region. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 20742091.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schade, L. R., and K. A. Emanuel, 1999: The ocean’s effect on the intensity of tropical cyclones: Results from a simple coupled atmosphere–ocean model. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 642651.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shay, L. K., R. L. Elsberry, and P. G. Black, 1987: Mesoscale ocean temperature and current patterns induced by hurricanes. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 388–392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shay, L. K., P. G. Black, J. D. Hawkins, R. L. Elsberry, and A. J. Mariano, 1991: Sea surface temperature response to Hurricane Gilbert. Preprints, 19th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 574–578.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sobel, A. H., and S. J. Camargo, 2005: Influence of western North Pacific tropical cyclones on their large-scale environment. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 33963407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sriver, R. L., and M. Huber, 2007: Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones. Nature, 447, 577580, doi:10.1038/nature05785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. Fasullo, 2007: Water and energy budgets of hurricanes and implications for climate change. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D23107, doi:10.1029/2006JD008304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, N. D., R. R. Leben, and S. Balasubramanian, 2005: Hurricane-forced upwelling and chlorophyll a enhancement within cold-core cyclones in the Gulf of Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18610, doi:10.1029/2005GL023716.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wendland, W. M., 1977: Tropical storm frequencies related to sea surface temperatures. J. Appl. Meteor., 16, 477481.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 93 93 93
PDF Downloads 23 23 23

Sea Surface Temperature Response to Tropical Cyclones

View More View Less
  • 1 Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Restricted access

Abstract

The response of sea surface temperature (SST) to tropical cyclones is studied using gridded SST data and global cyclone tracks from the period 1981–2008. A compositing approach is used whereby temperature time series before and after cyclone occurrence at individual cyclone track positions are averaged together.

Results reveal a variability of several days in the time of maximum cooling with respect to cyclone passage, with the most common occurrence 1 day after cyclone passage. When compositing is carried out relative to the day of maximum cooling, the global average response to cyclone passage is a local minimum SST anomaly of −0.9°C. The recovery of the ocean to cyclone passage is generally quite rapid with 44% of the data points recovering to climatological SST within 5 days, and 88% of the data points recovering within 30 days. Although differences exist between the mean results from the separate tropical cyclone basins, they are in broad agreement with the global mean results. Storm intensity and translation speed affect both the size of the SST response and the recovery time.

Cyclones occurring in the first half of the cyclone season disrupt the seasonal warming trend, which is not resumed until 20–30 days after cyclone passage. Conversely, cyclone occurrences in the later half of the season bring about a 0.5°C temperature drop from which the ocean does not recover due to the seasonal cooling cycle.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Richard A. Dare, CAWCR, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, 700 Collins St., Melbourne, 3001 VIC, Australia. E-mail: r.dare@bom.gov.au

Abstract

The response of sea surface temperature (SST) to tropical cyclones is studied using gridded SST data and global cyclone tracks from the period 1981–2008. A compositing approach is used whereby temperature time series before and after cyclone occurrence at individual cyclone track positions are averaged together.

Results reveal a variability of several days in the time of maximum cooling with respect to cyclone passage, with the most common occurrence 1 day after cyclone passage. When compositing is carried out relative to the day of maximum cooling, the global average response to cyclone passage is a local minimum SST anomaly of −0.9°C. The recovery of the ocean to cyclone passage is generally quite rapid with 44% of the data points recovering to climatological SST within 5 days, and 88% of the data points recovering within 30 days. Although differences exist between the mean results from the separate tropical cyclone basins, they are in broad agreement with the global mean results. Storm intensity and translation speed affect both the size of the SST response and the recovery time.

Cyclones occurring in the first half of the cyclone season disrupt the seasonal warming trend, which is not resumed until 20–30 days after cyclone passage. Conversely, cyclone occurrences in the later half of the season bring about a 0.5°C temperature drop from which the ocean does not recover due to the seasonal cooling cycle.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Richard A. Dare, CAWCR, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, 700 Collins St., Melbourne, 3001 VIC, Australia. E-mail: r.dare@bom.gov.au
Save