The Timing of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Relative to Total Lightning Activity

Donald R. MacGorman NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, and Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma and NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma

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Ivy R. Apostolakopoulos Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma and NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma

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Nicole R. Lund Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma and NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma

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Nicholas W. S. Demetriades Vaisala Inc., Tucson, Arizona

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Martin J. Murphy Vaisala Inc., Tucson, Arizona

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Paul R. Krehbiel New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico

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Abstract

The first flash produced by a storm usually does not strike ground, but little has been published concerning the time after the first flash before a cloud-to-ground flash occurs, particularly for a variety of climatological regions. To begin addressing this issue, this study analyzed data from very-high-frequency (VHF) lightning mapping systems, which detect flashes of all types, and from the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), which identifies flash type and detects roughly 90% of cloud-to-ground flashes overall. VHF mapping data were analyzed from three regions: north Texas, Oklahoma, and the high plains of Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska. The percentage of storms in which a cloud-to-ground flash was detected in the first minute of lightning activity varied from 0% in the high plains to 10%–20% in Oklahoma and north Texas. The distribution of delays to the first cloud-to-ground flash varied similarly. In Oklahoma and north Texas, 50% of storms produced a cloud-to-ground flash within 5–10 min, and roughly 10% failed to produce a cloud-to-ground flash within 1 h. In the high plains, however, it required 30 min for 50% of storms to have produced a cloud-to-ground flash, and 20% produced no ground flash within 1 h. The authors suggest that the reason high plains storms take longer to produce cloud-to-ground lightning is because the formation of the lower charge needed to produce most cloud-to-ground flashes is inhibited either by delaying the formation of precipitation in the mid- and lower levels of storms or by many of the storms having an inverted-polarity electrical structure.

Corresponding author address: Donald R. MacGorman, National Severe Storms Laboratory, WRDD, Rm. 3510, 120 David L. Boren Blvd., Norman, OK 73072. E-mail: don.macgorman@noaa.gov

Abstract

The first flash produced by a storm usually does not strike ground, but little has been published concerning the time after the first flash before a cloud-to-ground flash occurs, particularly for a variety of climatological regions. To begin addressing this issue, this study analyzed data from very-high-frequency (VHF) lightning mapping systems, which detect flashes of all types, and from the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), which identifies flash type and detects roughly 90% of cloud-to-ground flashes overall. VHF mapping data were analyzed from three regions: north Texas, Oklahoma, and the high plains of Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska. The percentage of storms in which a cloud-to-ground flash was detected in the first minute of lightning activity varied from 0% in the high plains to 10%–20% in Oklahoma and north Texas. The distribution of delays to the first cloud-to-ground flash varied similarly. In Oklahoma and north Texas, 50% of storms produced a cloud-to-ground flash within 5–10 min, and roughly 10% failed to produce a cloud-to-ground flash within 1 h. In the high plains, however, it required 30 min for 50% of storms to have produced a cloud-to-ground flash, and 20% produced no ground flash within 1 h. The authors suggest that the reason high plains storms take longer to produce cloud-to-ground lightning is because the formation of the lower charge needed to produce most cloud-to-ground flashes is inhibited either by delaying the formation of precipitation in the mid- and lower levels of storms or by many of the storms having an inverted-polarity electrical structure.

Corresponding author address: Donald R. MacGorman, National Severe Storms Laboratory, WRDD, Rm. 3510, 120 David L. Boren Blvd., Norman, OK 73072. E-mail: don.macgorman@noaa.gov
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