• Adlerman, E. J., and K. K. Droegemeier, 2002: The sensitivity of numerically simulated cyclic mesocyclogenesis to variations in model physical and computational parameters. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 26712691.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atlas, D., C. W. Ulbrich, F. D. Marks Jr., E. Amitai, and C. R. Williams, 1999: Systematic variation of drop size and radar-rainfall relations. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 61556169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldauf, M., A. Seifert, J. Förstner, D. Majewski, M. Raschendorfer, and T. Reinhardt, 2011: Operational convective-scale numerical weather prediction with the COSMO model: Description and sensitivities. Mon. Wea. Rev., in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blahak, U., 2007: RADAR_MIE_LM and RADAR_MIELIB — Calculation of radar reflectivity from model output. Tech. Rep., Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, University/Research Center Karlsruhe, 150 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blyth, A. M., W. A. Cooper, and J. B. Jensen, 1988: A study of the source of entrained air in Montana cumuli. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 39443964.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, G. H., and J. M. Fritsch, 2002: A benchmark simulation for moist nonhydrostatic numerical models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 29172928.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, G. H., and M. D. Parker, 2010: Observations of a squall line and its near environment using high-frequency rawinsonde launches during VORTEX2. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 40764097.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, G. H., J. C. Wyngaard, and J. M. Fritsch, 2003: Resolution requirements for the simulation of deep moist convection. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 23942416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, G. H., J. C. Knievel, and M. D. Parker, 2006: A multimodel assessment of RKW Theory’s relevance to squall-line characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 27722792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohard, J.-M., and J.-P. Pinty, 2000: A comprehensive two-moment warm microphysical bulk scheme. I: Description and tests. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 18151842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cotton, W. R., G. H. Bryan, and S. C. van den Heever, 2011: Storm and Cloud Dynamics. 2nd ed. Academic Press, 809 pp.

  • Dawson, D. T., M. Xue, J. A. Milbrandt, and M. K. Yau, 2010: Comparison of evaporation and cold pool development between single-moment and multimoment bulk microphysics schemes in idealized simulations of tornadic thunderstorms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 11521171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deardorff, J. W., 1980: Stratocumulus-capped mixed layer derived from a three-dimensional model. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 18, 495527.

  • Done, J., C. A. Davis, and M. Weisman, 2004: The next generation of NWP: Explicit forecasts of convection using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 5, 110117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudhia, J., 1989: Numerical study of convection observed during the Winter Monsoon Experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 30773107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrier, B. S., 1994: A double-moment multiple-phase four-class bulk ice scheme. Part I: Description. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 249280.

  • Ferrier, B. S., W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 1995: A double-moment multiple-phase four-class bulk ice scheme. Part II: Simulations of convective storms in different large-scale environments and comparisons with other bulk parameterizations. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 10011033.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fovell, R. G., and Y. Ogura, 1988: Numerical simulation of a midlatitude squall line in two dimensions. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 38463879.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ghan, S. J., L. R. Leung, and R. C. Easter, 1997: Prediction of cloud droplet number in a general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21 77721 794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilmore, M. S., J. M. Straka, and E. N. Rasmussen, 2004a: Precipitation and evolution sensitivity in simulated deep convective storms: Comparisons between liquid-only and simple ice and liquid phase microphysics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 18971916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilmore, M. S., J. M. Straka, and E. N. Rasmussen, 2004b: Precipitation uncertainty due to variations in precipitation particle parameters within a simple microphysics scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 26102627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grabowski, W. W., 1998: Toward cloud resolving modeling of large-scale tropical circulations: A simple cloud microphysics parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 32833298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grabowski, W. W., 2001: Coupling cloud processes with the large-scale dynamics using the cloud-resolving convection parameterization (CRCP). J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 978997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grabowski, W. W., and P. K. Smolarkiewicz, 1990: Monotone finite-difference approximations to the advection-condensation problem. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 20822097.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grabowski, W. W., and H. Morrison, 2008: Toward the mitigation of spurious cloud-edge supersaturation in cloud models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 12241234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grabowski, W. W., and Coauthors, 2006: Daytime convective development over land: A model intercomparison based on LBA observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132, 317344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, S.-Y., J. Dudhia, and S.-H. Chen, 2004: A revised approach to ice microphysical processes for the bulk parameterization of clouds and precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 103120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., Jr., 1993: Cloud Dynamics. Academic Press, 573 pp.

  • Kain, J. S., and Coauthors, 2008: Some practical considerations regarding horizontal resolution in the first generation of operational convection-allowing NWP. Wea. Forecasting, 23, 931952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koenig, L. R., and F. W. Murray, 1976: Ice-bearing cumulus cloud evolution: Numerical simulation and general comparison against observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 15, 747762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaFore, J.-P., and M. W. Moncrieff, 1989: A numerical investigation of the organization and interaction of the convective and stratiform regions of tropical squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 521544.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lean, H. W., P. A. Clark, M. Dixon, N. M. Roberts, A. Fitch, R. Forbes, and C. Halliwell, 2008: Characteristics of high-resolution versions of the Met Office Unified Model for forecasting convection over the United Kingdom. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 34083424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, Y.-L., R. D. Farley, and H. D. Orville, 1983: Bulk parameterization of the snow field in a cloud model. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 10651092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, C., M. W. Moncrieff, and E. J. Zipser, 1997: Dynamical influence of microphysics in tropical squall lines: A numerical study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 21932210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Locatelli, J. D., and P. V. Hobbs, 1974: Fallspeeds and masses of solid precipitation particles. J. Geophys. Res., 79, 21852197.

  • Lord, S. J., H. E. Willoughby, and J. M. Piotrowicz, 1984: Role of parameterized ice-phase microphysics in an axisymmetric, nonhydrostatic tropical cyclone model. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 28362848.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Y., Y. Wang, H. Wang, Y. Zheng, and H. Morrison, 2010: Modeling convective-stratiform precipitation processes on a Mei-Yu front with the Weather Research and Forecasting model: Comparison with observations and sensitivity to cloud microphysics parameterizations. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18117, doi:10.1029/2010JD013873.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, G. M., D. W. Johnson, and A. Spice, 1994: The measurement and parameterization of effective radius of droplets in warm stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 18231842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matson, R. J., and A. W. Huggins, 1980: The direct measurement of the sizes, shapes and kinematics of falling hailstones. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 11071125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCumber, M., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, R. Penc, and S.-T. Soong, 1991: Comparison of ice-phase microphysical parameterization schemes using numerical simulations of tropical convection. J. Appl. Meteor., 30, 9851004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyers, M. P., R. L. Walko, J. Y. Harrington, and W. R. Cotton, 1997: New RAMS cloud microphysics parameterization. Part II: The two-moment scheme. Atmos. Res., 45, 339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milbrandt, J. A., and M. K. Yau, 2005a: A multimoment bulk microphysics parameterization. Part I: Analysis of the role of the spectral shape parameter. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 30513064.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milbrandt, J. A., and M. K. Yau, 2005b: A multimoment bulk microphysics parameterization. Part II: A proposed three-moment closure and scheme description. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 30653081.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ming, Y., V. Ramaswamy, L. J. Donner, V. T. Phillips, S. A. Klein, P. A. Ginoux, and L. W. Horowitz, 2007: Modeling the interactions between aerosols and liquid water clouds with a self-consistent cloud scheme in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 11891209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, H., and J. O. Pinto, 2005: Mesoscale modeling of springtime arctic mixed-phase stratiform clouds using a new two-moment bulk microphysics scheme. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 36833704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, H., and J. O. Pinto, 2006: Intercomparison of bulk cloud microphysics schemes in mesoscale simulations of springtime arctic mixed-phase stratiform clouds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 18801900.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, H., and W. W. Grabowski, 2008: A novel approach for representing ice microphysics in models: Description and tests using a kinematic framework. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 15281548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, H., and J. Milbrandt, 2011: Comparison of two-moment bulk microphysics schemes in idealized supercell thunderstorm simulations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 11031130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, H., J. A. Curry, and V. I. Khvorostyanov, 2005: A new double-moment microphysics parameterization for application in cloud and climate models. Part I: Description. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 16651677.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, H., J. O. Pinto, J. A. Curry, and G. M. McFarquhar, 2008: Sensitivity of modeled arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus to cloud condensation and ice nuclei over regionally varying surface conditions. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D05203, doi:10.1029/2007JD008729.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, H., G. Thompson, and V. Tatarskii, 2009: Impact of cloud microphysics on the development of trailing stratiform precipitation in a simulated squall line: Comparison of one- and two-moment schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 9911007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petch, J. C., and M. E. B. Gray, 2001: Sensitivity studies using a cloud-resolving model simulation of the tropical west Pacific. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 22872306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petch, J. C., A. R. Brown, and M. E. B. Gray, 2002: The impact of horizontal resolution on the simulations of convective development over land. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128, 20312044.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, V. T., L. J. Donner, and S. T. Garner, 2007: Nucleation processes in deep convection simulated by a cloud-resolving model with double-moment bulk microphysics. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 738761.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pruppacher, H. R., and J. D. Klett, 1997: Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 954 pp.

  • Randall, D., M. Khairoutdinov, A. Arakawa, and W. Grabowski, 2003: Breaking the cloud parameterization deadlock. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 15471564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Redelsperger, J.-L., and Coauthors, 2000: A GCSS model intercomparison for a tropical squall line observed during TOGA–COARE. I: Cloud-resolving models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 823863.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reisner, J., R. M. Rasmussen, and R. T. Bruintjes, 1998: Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124, 10711107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rotunno, R., Y. Chen, W. Wang, C. Davis, J. Dudhia, and G. J. Holland, 2009: Large-eddy simulation of an idealized tropical cyclone. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 17831788.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rutledge, S. A., and P. V. Hobbs, 1984: The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude cyclones. XII: A diagnostic modeling study of precipitation development in narrow cold-frontal rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 29492972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seifert, A., and K. D. Beheng, 2001: A double-moment parameterization for simulating autoconversion, accretion, and self-collection. Atmos. Res., 5960, 265281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seifert, A., and K. D. Beheng, 2006a: A two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for mixed-phase clouds. Part 1: Model description. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 92, 4566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seifert, A., and K. D. Beheng, 2006b: A two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for mixed-phase clouds. Part 2: Maritime vs. continental deep convective storms. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 92, 6782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seity, Y., P. Brousseau, S. Malardel, G. Hello, P. Benard, F. Bouttier, C. Lac, and V. Masson, 2011: The AROME-France convective-scale operational model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 976991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, P. L., 1984: Equivalent radar reflectivity factors for snow and ice particles. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23, 12581260.

  • Stevens, B., R. L. Walko, W. R. Cotton, and G. Feingold, 1996: The spurious production of cloud-edge supersaturations by Eulerian models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 10341041.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Straka, J. M., and E. R. Mansell, 2005: A bulk microphysics parameterization with multiple ice precipitation categories. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 445466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, G., R. M. Rasmussen, and K. Manning, 2004: Explicit forecasts of winter precipitation using an improved bulk microphysics scheme. Part I: Description and sensitivity analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 519542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, G., P. R. Field, R. M. Rasmussen, and W. D. Hall, 2008: Explicit forecasts of winter precipitation using an improved bulk microphysics scheme. Part II: Implementation of a new snow parameterization. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 50955115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tokay, A., and D. A. Short, 1996: Evidence from tropical raindrop spectra of the origin of rain from stratiform versus convective clouds. J. Appl. Meteor., 35, 355371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uijlenhoet, R., M. Steiner, and J. A. Smith, 2003: Variability of raindrop size distributions in a squall line and implications for radar rainfall estimation. J. Hydrometeor., 4, 4361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VanWeverberg, K., N. vanLipzig, and L. Delobbe, 2010: Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impacts of microphysics size distribution assumptions. Atmos. Res., 99, 1538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waldvogel, A., 1974: The N0 jump of raindrop spectra. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 10671077.

  • Weisman, M. L., J. B. Klemp, and R. Rotunno, 1988: Structure and evolution of numerically simulated squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 19902013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weisman, M. L., W. C. Skamarock, and J. B. Klemp, 1997: The resolution dependence of explicitly modeled convective systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 527548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weisman, M. L., C. Davis, W. Wang, K. W. Manning, and J. B. Klemp, 2008: Experiences with 0–36-h explicit convective forecasts with the WRF-ARW Model. Wea. Forecasting, 23, 407437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiss, S. J., M. E. Pyle, Z. Janjic, D. R. Bright, J. S. Kain, and G. J. DiMego, 2008: The operational High Resolution Window WRF model runs at NCEP: Advantages of multiple model runs for severe convective weather forecasting. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Savannah, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P10.8. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/142192.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wicker, L. J., and W. C. Skamarock, 2002: Time splitting methods for elastic models using forward time schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 20882097.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, K.-M., and Coauthors, 2002: An intercomparison of cloud-resolving models with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement summer 1997 Intensive Observation Period data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128, 593624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xue, M., 2000: High-order monotonic numerical diffusion and smoothing. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 28532864.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 46 46 46
PDF Downloads 37 37 37

Sensitivity of a Simulated Squall Line to Horizontal Resolution and Parameterization of Microphysics

View More View Less
  • 1 National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado
Restricted access

Abstract

Idealized simulations of the 15 May 2009 squall line from the Second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX2) are evaluated in this study. Four different microphysical setups are used, with either single-moment (1M) or double-moment (2M) microphysics, and either hail or graupel as the dense (rimed) ice species. Three different horizontal grid spacings are used: Δx = 4, 1, or 0.25 km (with identical vertical grids). Overall, results show that simulated squall lines are sensitive to both microphysical setup and horizontal resolution, although some quantities (i.e., surface rainfall) are more sensitive to Δx in this study. Simulations with larger Δx are slower to develop, produce more precipitation, and have higher cloud tops, all of which are attributable to larger convective cells that do not entrain midlevel air. The highest-resolution simulations have substantially more cloud water evaporation, which is partly attributable to the development of resolved turbulence. For a given Δx, the 1M simulations produce less rain, more intense cold pools, and do not have trailing stratiform precipitation at the surface, owing to excessive rainwater evaporation. The simulations with graupel as the dense ice species have unrealistically wide convective regions. Comparison against analyses from VORTEX2 data shows that the 2M setup with hail and Δx = 0.25 km produces the most realistic simulation because (i) this simulation produces realistic distributions of reflectivity associated with convective, transition, and trailing stratiform regions, (ii) the cold pool properties are reasonably close to analyses from VORTEX2, and (iii) relative humidity in the cold pool is closest to observations.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: George H. Bryan, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3090 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301. E-mail: gbryan@ucar.edu

Abstract

Idealized simulations of the 15 May 2009 squall line from the Second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX2) are evaluated in this study. Four different microphysical setups are used, with either single-moment (1M) or double-moment (2M) microphysics, and either hail or graupel as the dense (rimed) ice species. Three different horizontal grid spacings are used: Δx = 4, 1, or 0.25 km (with identical vertical grids). Overall, results show that simulated squall lines are sensitive to both microphysical setup and horizontal resolution, although some quantities (i.e., surface rainfall) are more sensitive to Δx in this study. Simulations with larger Δx are slower to develop, produce more precipitation, and have higher cloud tops, all of which are attributable to larger convective cells that do not entrain midlevel air. The highest-resolution simulations have substantially more cloud water evaporation, which is partly attributable to the development of resolved turbulence. For a given Δx, the 1M simulations produce less rain, more intense cold pools, and do not have trailing stratiform precipitation at the surface, owing to excessive rainwater evaporation. The simulations with graupel as the dense ice species have unrealistically wide convective regions. Comparison against analyses from VORTEX2 data shows that the 2M setup with hail and Δx = 0.25 km produces the most realistic simulation because (i) this simulation produces realistic distributions of reflectivity associated with convective, transition, and trailing stratiform regions, (ii) the cold pool properties are reasonably close to analyses from VORTEX2, and (iii) relative humidity in the cold pool is closest to observations.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: George H. Bryan, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3090 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301. E-mail: gbryan@ucar.edu
Save