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Role of Rossby Waves in the Remote Effects of the North Indian Ocean Tropical Disturbances

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  • 1 Research Institute for Global Change, and Application Laboratory, Yokohama, Japan
  • | 2 Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, and Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • | 3 Application Laboratory, Yokohama, and Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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Abstract

Remote effects due to the tropical disturbances in the north Indian Ocean are investigated by analyzing long-lasting (≥5 days) tropical disturbances, which reached at least the strength of tropical storms. The present analysis is carried out for both the pre- and postmonsoon periods. The spatial and temporal distribution of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) during the premonsoon disturbances over the Bay of Bengal reveals several interesting features. Temporal distribution of the OLR anomalies shows that the intraseasonal oscillations play an important role in the formation of those disturbances. The spatial distribution of the OLR anomalies shows a dipole with negative OLR anomalies over the bay and positive OLR anomalies over the Indonesian region. The atmospheric response to the negative OLR anomalies results in positive temperature anomalies over northwest India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia, remote from the disturbance; and the response to the positive anomalies causes slight increase in the sea surface temperature of the Arabian Sea. Negative OLR anomalies are also seen over western Japan due to the Rossby waves generated by the heating over the Bay of Bengal besides the enhancement of the so-called “Pacific–Japan” teleconnection pattern. However, the analysis shows that the postmonsoon disturbances over the Bay of Bengal and the disturbances formed over the Arabian Sea in both pre- and postmonsoon seasons do not develop remote teleconnections associated with the above type of Rossby wave mechanism. These results are significant for the short- to medium-range weather forecast over a wide range covering Japan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

Corresponding author address: J. V. Ratnam, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001, Japan. E-mail: jvratnam@jamstec.go.jp

Abstract

Remote effects due to the tropical disturbances in the north Indian Ocean are investigated by analyzing long-lasting (≥5 days) tropical disturbances, which reached at least the strength of tropical storms. The present analysis is carried out for both the pre- and postmonsoon periods. The spatial and temporal distribution of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) during the premonsoon disturbances over the Bay of Bengal reveals several interesting features. Temporal distribution of the OLR anomalies shows that the intraseasonal oscillations play an important role in the formation of those disturbances. The spatial distribution of the OLR anomalies shows a dipole with negative OLR anomalies over the bay and positive OLR anomalies over the Indonesian region. The atmospheric response to the negative OLR anomalies results in positive temperature anomalies over northwest India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia, remote from the disturbance; and the response to the positive anomalies causes slight increase in the sea surface temperature of the Arabian Sea. Negative OLR anomalies are also seen over western Japan due to the Rossby waves generated by the heating over the Bay of Bengal besides the enhancement of the so-called “Pacific–Japan” teleconnection pattern. However, the analysis shows that the postmonsoon disturbances over the Bay of Bengal and the disturbances formed over the Arabian Sea in both pre- and postmonsoon seasons do not develop remote teleconnections associated with the above type of Rossby wave mechanism. These results are significant for the short- to medium-range weather forecast over a wide range covering Japan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

Corresponding author address: J. V. Ratnam, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001, Japan. E-mail: jvratnam@jamstec.go.jp
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