Concentric Eyewall Formation in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008). Part I: Assimilation of T-PARC Data Based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF)

Chun-Chieh Wu Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Yi-Hsuan Huang Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Guo-Yuan Lien Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Abstract

Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) is a case in point under The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) with the most abundant flight observations taken and with great potential to address major scientific issues in T-PARC such as structure change, targeted observations, and extratropical transition. A new method for vortex initialization based on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is adopted in this study. By continuously assimilating storm positions (with an update cycle every 30 min), the mean surface wind structure, and all available measurement data, this study constructs a unique high-spatial/temporal-resolution and model/observation-consistent dataset for Sinlaku during a 4-day period. Simulations of Sinlaku starting at different initial times are further investigated to assess the impact of the data. It is striking that some of the simulations are able to capture Sinlaku’s secondary eyewall formation, while others starting the simulation earlier with less data assimilated are not. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to study the dynamical processes of concentric eyewall formation in Sinlaku. In Part I of this work, results from the data assimilation and simulations are presented, including concentric eyewall evolution and the precursors to its formation, while detailed dynamical analyses are conducted in follow-up research.

Corresponding author address: Chun-Chieh Wu, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan. E-mail: cwu@typhoon.as.ntu.edu.tw

Abstract

Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) is a case in point under The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) with the most abundant flight observations taken and with great potential to address major scientific issues in T-PARC such as structure change, targeted observations, and extratropical transition. A new method for vortex initialization based on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is adopted in this study. By continuously assimilating storm positions (with an update cycle every 30 min), the mean surface wind structure, and all available measurement data, this study constructs a unique high-spatial/temporal-resolution and model/observation-consistent dataset for Sinlaku during a 4-day period. Simulations of Sinlaku starting at different initial times are further investigated to assess the impact of the data. It is striking that some of the simulations are able to capture Sinlaku’s secondary eyewall formation, while others starting the simulation earlier with less data assimilated are not. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to study the dynamical processes of concentric eyewall formation in Sinlaku. In Part I of this work, results from the data assimilation and simulations are presented, including concentric eyewall evolution and the precursors to its formation, while detailed dynamical analyses are conducted in follow-up research.

Corresponding author address: Chun-Chieh Wu, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan. E-mail: cwu@typhoon.as.ntu.edu.tw
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