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Localization and Sampling Error Correction in Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation

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  • 1 NCAR/Data Assimilation Research Section,* Boulder, Colorado
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Abstract

Ensemble Kalman filters use the sample covariance of an observation and a model state variable to update a prior estimate of the state variable. The sample covariance can be suboptimal as a result of small ensemble size, model error, model nonlinearity, and other factors. The most common algorithms for dealing with these deficiencies are inflation and covariance localization. A statistical model of errors in ensemble Kalman filter sample covariances is described and leads to an algorithm that reduces ensemble filter root-mean-square error for some applications. This sampling error correction algorithm uses prior information about the distribution of the correlation between an observation and a state variable. Offline Monte Carlo simulation is used to build a lookup table that contains a correction factor between 0 and 1 depending on the ensemble size and the ensemble sample correlation. Correction factors are applied like a traditional localization for each pair of observations and state variables during an ensemble assimilation. The algorithm is applied to two low-order models and reduces the sensitivity of the ensemble assimilation error to the strength of traditional localization. When tested in perfect model experiments in a larger model, the dynamical core of a general circulation model, the sampling error correction algorithm produces analyses that are closer to the truth and also reduces sensitivity to traditional localization strength.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: Jeffrey Anderson, NCAR, 1850 Table Mesa Dr., Boulder, CO 80305. E-mail: jla@ucar.edu

Abstract

Ensemble Kalman filters use the sample covariance of an observation and a model state variable to update a prior estimate of the state variable. The sample covariance can be suboptimal as a result of small ensemble size, model error, model nonlinearity, and other factors. The most common algorithms for dealing with these deficiencies are inflation and covariance localization. A statistical model of errors in ensemble Kalman filter sample covariances is described and leads to an algorithm that reduces ensemble filter root-mean-square error for some applications. This sampling error correction algorithm uses prior information about the distribution of the correlation between an observation and a state variable. Offline Monte Carlo simulation is used to build a lookup table that contains a correction factor between 0 and 1 depending on the ensemble size and the ensemble sample correlation. Correction factors are applied like a traditional localization for each pair of observations and state variables during an ensemble assimilation. The algorithm is applied to two low-order models and reduces the sensitivity of the ensemble assimilation error to the strength of traditional localization. When tested in perfect model experiments in a larger model, the dynamical core of a general circulation model, the sampling error correction algorithm produces analyses that are closer to the truth and also reduces sensitivity to traditional localization strength.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: Jeffrey Anderson, NCAR, 1850 Table Mesa Dr., Boulder, CO 80305. E-mail: jla@ucar.edu
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