• Alexander, C. R., 2010: A mobile radar based climatology of supercell tornado structure and dynamics. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 229 pp.

  • Alexander, C. R., , and J. Wurman, 2005: The 30 May 1998 Spencer, South Dakota, storm. Part I: The structural evolution and environment of the tornadoes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 7297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atkins, N. T., , A. McGee, , R. Ducharme, , R. M. Wakimoto, , and J. Wurman, 2012: The LaGrange tornado during VORTEX2. Part II: Photogrammetric analysis of the tornado combined with dual-Doppler radar data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 29392958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bluestein, H. B., , C. C. Weiss, , and A. L. Pazmany, 2003: Mobile Doppler radar observations of a tornado in a supercell near Bassett, Nebraska, on 5 June 1999. Part I: Tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 29542967.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bluestein, H. B., , M. M. French, , I. PopStefanija, , R. T. Bluth, , and J. B. Knorr, 2010: A mobile, phased-array Doppler radar for the study of severe convective storms: The MWR-05XP. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 579600.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, R. A., , and L. R. Lemon, 1976: Single-Doppler radar vortex recognition. Part II: Tornadic vortex signatures. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 104–109.

  • Brown, R. A., , and V. T. Wood, 2012: The tornadic vortex signature: An update. Wea. Forecasting, 27, 525530.

  • Brown, R. A., , L. R. Lemon, , and D. W. Burgess, 1978: Tornado detection by pulsed Doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 2939.

  • Burgess, D. W., , and L. R. Lemon, 1990: Severe thunderstorm detection by radar. Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 619–647.

  • Burgess, D. W., , L. R. Lemon, , and R. A. Brown, 1975: Tornado characteristics revealed by Doppler radar. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2, 183184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burgess, D. W., , R. J. Donaldson Jr., , and P. R. Desrochers, 1993: Tornado detection and warning by radar. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 203–221.

  • Burgess, D. W., , M. A. Magsig, , J. Wurman, , D. C. Dowell, , and Y. Richardson, 2002: Radar observations of the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 456471.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carbone, R. E., , M. J. Carpenter, , and C. D. Burghart, 1985: Doppler radar sampling limitation in convective storms. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 2, 357361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, W. G., , C. H. Paxton, , and J. H. Golden, 2000: The 12 July 1995 Pinellas County, Florida, tornado/waterspout. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 122134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davies-Jones, R. P., 1982: Observational and theoretical aspects of tornadogenesis. Intense Atmospheric Vortices, L. Bengtsson and J. Lighthill, Eds., Springer-Verlag, 175–189.

  • Davies-Jones, R. P., , R. J. Trapp, , and H. B. Bluestein, 2001: Tornadoes and tornadic storms. Severe Convective Storms, Meteor. Monogr., No. 50, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 167–221.

  • Dowell, D. C., , and H. B. Bluestein, 2002: The 8 June 1995 McLean, Texas, storm. Part II: Cyclic tornado formation, maintenance, and dissipation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 26492670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, L. B., 1990: Two examples of operational tornado warnings using Doppler radar data. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71, 145153.

  • Dunn, L. B., , and S. V. Vasiloff, 2001: Tornadogenesis and operational considerations of the 11 August 1999 Salt Lake City tornado as seen from two different Doppler radars. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 377398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • French, M. M., 2012: Mobile, phased-array, Doppler radar observations of tornadoes at X band. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 322 pp.

  • Glickman, T. S., Ed., 2000: Glossary of Meteorology. 2nd ed. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 855 pp.

  • Kosiba, K. A., , J. Wurman, , Y. Richardson, , P. Markowski, , and P. Robinson, 2013: Genesis of the Goshen County, Wyoming, tornado on 5 June 2009 during VORTEX2. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 11571181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leslie, L. M., 1971: The development of concentrated vortices: A numerical study. J. Fluid Mech., 48, 121.

  • Markowski, P. M., , and Y. Richardson, 2009: Tornadogenesis: Our current understanding, forecasting considerations, and questions to guide future research. Atmos. Res., 93, 310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markowski, P. M., , Y. Richardson, , J. Marquis, , J. Wurman, , K. Kosiba, , P. Robinson, , D. Dowell, , and E. Rasmussen, 2012a: The pretornadic phase of the Goshen County, Wyoming, supercell of 5 June 2009 intercepted by VORTEX2. Part I: Evolution of kinematic and surface thermodynamic fields. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 28872915.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markowski, P. M., , Y. Richardson, , J. Marquis, , J. Wurman, , K. Kosiba, , P. Robinson, , E. Rasmussen, , and D. Dowell, 2012b: The pretornadic phase of the Goshen County, Wyoming, supercell of 5 June 2009 intercepted by VORTEX2. Part II: Intensification of low-level rotation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 29162938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marquis, J., , Y. Richardson, , P. Markowski, , D. Dowell, , and J. Wurman, 2012: Tornado maintenance investigated with high-resolution dual-Doppler and EnKF analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oye, R., , C. Mueller, , and S. Smith, 1995: Software for radar translation, visualization, editing, and interpolation. Preprints, 29th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Vail, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 359361.

  • Pazmany, A. L., , J. B. Mead, , H. B. Bluestein, , J. C. Snyder, , and J. B. Houser, 2013: A mobile, rapid-scanning, X-band, polarimetric (RaXPol) Doppler radar system. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 30, 13981413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rotunno, R., 1986: Tornadoes and tornadogenesis. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 414–436.

  • Rotunno, R., 1993: Supercell thunderstorm modeling and theory. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 57–74.

  • Smith, R. K., , and L. M. Leslie, 1978: Tornadogenesis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 104, 189199.

  • Trapp, R. J., , and B. F. Fiedler, 1995: Tornado-like vortexgenesis in a simplified numerical model. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 37573778.

  • Trapp, R. J., , and R. Davies-Jones, 1997: Tornadogenesis with and without a dynamic pipe effect. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 113133.

  • Trapp, R. J., , E. D. Mitchell, , G. A. Tipton, , D. W. Effertz, , A. I. Watson, , D. L. Andra, , and M. A. Magsig, 1999: Descending and nondescending tornadic vortex signatures detected by WSR-88Ds. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 625639.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trapp, R. J., , G. J. Stumpf, , and K. L. Manross, 2005: A reassessment of the percentage of tornadic mesocyclones. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 680687.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vasiloff, S. V., 1993: Single-Doppler radar study of a variety of tornado types. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 223–231.

  • Vasiloff, S. V., 2001: Improving tornado warnings with the Federal Aviation Administration's Terminal Doppler Weather Radar. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 861874.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wakimoto, R. M., , N. T. Atkins, , and J. Wurman, 2011: The LaGrange tornado during VORTEX2. Part I: Photogrammetry analysis of the tornado combined with single-Doppler radar data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 22332258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, N. B., 1972: The exploration of certain features of tornado dynamics using a laboratory model. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 11941204.

  • Wilson, J., , R. Carbone, , H. Baynton, , and R. Serafin, 1980: Operational application of meteorological Doppler radar. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 61, 11541168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wood, V. T., , and R. A. Brown, 1997: Effects of radar sampling on single-Doppler velocity signatures of mesocyclones and tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 12, 928938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J., , and M. Randall, 2001: An inexpensive, mobile, Rapid-Scan Radar. Preprints, 30th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Munich, Germany, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98100.

  • Wurman, J., , J. Straka, , E. Rasmussen, , M. Randall, , and A. Zahrai, 1997: Design and deployment of a portable, pencil-beam, pulsed, 3-cm Doppler radar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 15021512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J., , Y. Richardson, , C. Alexander, , S. Weygandt, , and P. Zhang, 2007a: Dual-Doppler and single-Doppler analysis of a tornadic storm undergoing mergers and repeated tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 736758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J., , Y. Richardson, , C. Alexander, , S. Weygandt, , and P. Zhang, 2007b: Dual-Doppler analysis of winds and vorticity budget terms near a tornado. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 23922405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J., , P. Robinson, , W. C. Lee, , C. R. Alexander, , and K. A. Kosiba, 2008: Rapid-scan mobile radar 3D GBVTD and traditional analysis of tornadogenesis. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Savannah, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P13.6. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/24SLS/techprogram/paper_142176.htm.]

  • Wurman, J., , D. Dowell, , Y. Richardson, , P. Markowski, , E. Rasmussen, , D. Burgess, , L. Wicker, , and H. B. Bluestein, 2012: The second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment: VORTEX2. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 11471170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J., , K. Kosiba, , and P. Robinson, 2013: In-situ, Doppler radar, and video observations of the interior structure of a tornado and the wind–damage relationship. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 835846.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zrnic, D. S., and Coauthors, 2007: Agile-beam phased array radar for weather observations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 17531766.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 179 179 18
PDF Downloads 153 153 16

Reexamining the Vertical Development of Tornadic Vortex Signatures in Supercells

View More View Less
  • 1 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 2 ProSensing, Inc., Amherst, Massachusetts
  • | 3 Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

Observations from a hybrid phased-array Doppler radar, the Mobile Weather Radar, 2005 X-band, Phased Array (MWR-05XP), were used to investigate the vertical development of tornadic vortex signatures (TVSs) during supercell tornadogenesis. Data with volumetric update times of ∼10 s, an order of magnitude better than that of most other mobile Doppler radars, were obtained up to storm midlevels during the formation of three tornadoes. It is found that TVSs formed upward with time during tornadogenesis for two cases. In a third case, missing low-level data prevented a complete time–height analysis of TVS development; however, TVS formation occurred first near the ground and then at storm midlevels several minutes later. These results are consistent with the small number of volumetric mobile Doppler radar tornadogenesis cases from the past ∼10 years, but counter to studies prior to that, in which a descending TVS was observed in roughly half of tornado cases utilizing Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data. A comparative example is used to examine the possible effects relatively long WSR-88D volumetric update times have on determining the mode of tornadogenesis.

Current affiliation: NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma.

Corresponding author address: Michael M. French, NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, National Weather Center, 120 David L. Boren Blvd., Norman, OK 73072. E-mail: michael.french@noaa.gov

Abstract

Observations from a hybrid phased-array Doppler radar, the Mobile Weather Radar, 2005 X-band, Phased Array (MWR-05XP), were used to investigate the vertical development of tornadic vortex signatures (TVSs) during supercell tornadogenesis. Data with volumetric update times of ∼10 s, an order of magnitude better than that of most other mobile Doppler radars, were obtained up to storm midlevels during the formation of three tornadoes. It is found that TVSs formed upward with time during tornadogenesis for two cases. In a third case, missing low-level data prevented a complete time–height analysis of TVS development; however, TVS formation occurred first near the ground and then at storm midlevels several minutes later. These results are consistent with the small number of volumetric mobile Doppler radar tornadogenesis cases from the past ∼10 years, but counter to studies prior to that, in which a descending TVS was observed in roughly half of tornado cases utilizing Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data. A comparative example is used to examine the possible effects relatively long WSR-88D volumetric update times have on determining the mode of tornadogenesis.

Current affiliation: NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma.

Corresponding author address: Michael M. French, NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, National Weather Center, 120 David L. Boren Blvd., Norman, OK 73072. E-mail: michael.french@noaa.gov
Save