• Ackerman, T. P., , and G. M. Stokes, 2003: The atmospheric radiation measurement program. Phys. Today, 56, 3844, doi.org/10.1063/1.1554135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beljaars, A. C. M., 1995: The parameterization of surface fluxes in large-scale models under free convection. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121, 255270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beljaars, A. C. M., , and A. A. M. Holtslag, 1991: On flux parameterization over land surfaces for atmospheric models. J. Appl. Meteor., 30, 327341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Betts, A., 2009: Land-surface–atmosphere coupling in observations and models. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 1, 118.

  • Betts, A., , F. Chen, , K. Mitchell, , and Z. Janjić, 1997: Assessment of the land surface and boundary layer models in two operational versions of the NCEP Eta Model using FIFE data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 28962916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowen, I. S., 1926: The ratio of heat losses by conduction and by evaporation from any water surface. Phys. Rev., 27, 779787.

  • Brotzge, J. A., , and K. C. Crawford, 2003: Examination of the surface energy budget: A comparison of eddy correlation and Bowen ratio measurement systems. J. Hydrometeor., 4, 160178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, A. R., and Coauthors, 2002: Large-eddy simulation of the diurnal cycle of shallow cumulus convection over land. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128, 10751093.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brutsaert, W. H., 1982: Evaporation into the Atmosphere: Theory, History and Applications. D. Reidel, 299 pp.

  • Businger, J. A., , J. C. Wyngaard, , Y. Izumi, , and E. F. Bradley, 1971: Flux-profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 181189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassano, J. J., , T. R. Parish, , and J. C. King, 2001: Evaluation of turbulent surface flux parameterizations for the stable surface layer over Halley, Antarctica. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chehbouni, A., , D. Lo Seen, , E. G. Njoku, , and B. M. Monteny, 1996: Examination of the difference between radiative and aerodynamic surface temperatures over sparsely vegetated surfaces. Remote Sens. Environ., 58, 177186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chehbouni, A., , D. Lo Seen, , E. G. Njoku, , J.-P. Lhomme, , B. Monteny, , and Y. H. Kerr, 1997: Estimation of sensible heat flux over sparsely vegetated surfaces. J. Hydrol., 188–189, 855868.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chehbouni, A., , Y. Nouvellon, , J.-P. Lhomme, , C. Watts, , G. Boulet, , Y. H. Kerr, , M. S. Moran, , and D. C. Goodrich, 2001: Estimation of surface sensible heat flux using dual angle observations of radiative surface temperature. Agric. For. Meteor., 108, 5565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, F., , Z. Janjić, , and K. Mitchell, 1997: Impact of atmospheric surface-layer parameterizations in the new land-surface scheme of the NCEP mesoscale Eta Model. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 85, 391421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colaizzi, P. D., , S. R. Evetta, , T. A. Howella, , and J. A. Tolka, 2004: Comparison of aerodynamic and radiometric surface temperature using precision weighing lysimeters. Proc. SPIE, 5544, 215229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, W. D., and Coauthors, 2004: Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0). NCAR Tech. Rep. NCAR/TN-464+STR, 214 pp. [Available online at http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/models/atm-cam/docs/description/description.pdf.]

  • Cook, D. R., , D. J. Holdridge, , and M. L. Fischer, 2006: Comparison of ECOR, EBBR, and CO2FLX4m system fluxes. Proc. 16th ARM Science Team Meeting, Albuquerque, NM, DOE/ARM.

  • Crow, W. T., , and E. F. Wood, 2003: The assimilation of remotely sensed soil brightness temperature imagery into a land surface model using ensemble Kalman filtering: A case study based on ESTAR measurements during SGP97. Adv. Water Resour., 26, 137149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Derbyshire, S. H., 1995: Stable boundary layers: Observations, models and variability. Part I: Modeling and measurements. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 74, 1954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dyer, A. J., 1974: A review of flux-profile relationships. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 7, 363372.

  • GAMDT, 2004: The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2–LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. J. Climate, 17, 46414673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garratt, J. R., 1992: Extreme maximum land surface temperatures. J. Appl. Meteor., 31, 10961105.

  • Garratt, J. R., , and B. B. Hicks, 1973: Momentum, heat, and water vapor transfer to and from natural and artificial surfaces. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99, 680687.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartke, G. J., , and D. Rind, 1997: Improved surface and boundary layer models for the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 16 40716 422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, R. J., 1997: Applicability of Kolmogorov’s and Monin’s equations of turbulence. J. Fluid Mech., 353, 6781.

  • Högström, U., 1988: Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: A re-evaluation. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 42, 5578.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hollinger, S. E., , and C. S. T. Daughtry, 1999: Southern Great Plains 1997 Hydrology Experiment: Vegetation sampling and data documentation. Contract Rep. 644 to United States Department of Agriculture on Contract AG-58-1270-7-043, 36 pp.

  • Holtslag, A. A. M., , and H. A. R. De Bruin, 1988: Applied modeling of the nighttime surface energy balance over land. J. Appl. Meteor., 27, 689704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holtslag, A. A. M., , E. I. F. De Bruijn, , and H.-L. Pan, 1990: A high-resolution air mass transformation model for short range weather forecasting. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 15611575.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ingwersen, J., and Coauthors, 2011: Comparison of Noah simulations with eddy covariance and soil water measurements at a winter wheat stand. Agric. For. Meteor., 151, 345355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janjić, Z. I., 1996: The surface layer in the NCEP Eta Model. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Norfolk, VA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 354–355.

  • Jiang, L., , S. Islam, , and T. N. Carlson, 2004: Uncertainties in latent heat flux measurement and estimation: Implications for using a simplified approach with remote sensing data. Can. J. Remote Sens., 30, 769787.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez, P. A., , J. Dudhia, , J. F. González-Rouco, , J. Navarro, , J. P. Montávez, , and E. García-Bustamante, 2012: A revised scheme for the WRF surface layer formulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 898918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kader, B. A., , and A. M. Yaglom, 1990: Mean fields and fluctuation moments in unstably stratified turbulent boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech., 212, 637662.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kustas, W. P., , B. J. Choudhury, , M. S. Moran, , R. J. Reginato, , R. D. Jackson, , L. W. Gay, , and H. L. Weaver, 1989: Determination of sensible heat flux over sparse canopy using thermal infrared data. Agric. For. Meteor., 44, 197216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kustas, W. P., , M. C. Anderson, , J. M. Norman, , and F. Li, 2007: Utility of radiometric–aerodynamic temperature relations for heat flux estimation. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 122, 167187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lhomme, J.-P., , B. Monteny, , and M. Amadou, 1994: Estimating sensible heat flux from radiometric temperature over sparse millet. Agric. For. Meteor., 68, 7791.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, J., , and M. Cai, 2009: Stabilization of the atmospheric boundary layer and the muted global hydrological cycle response to global warming. J. Hydrometeor., 10, 347353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahrt, L., 1998: Stratified atmospheric boundary layers and breakdown of models. Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 11, 263279.

  • Mahrt, L., 1999: Stratified atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 90, 375396.

  • Merlin, O., , and A. Chehbouni, 2004: Different approaches in estimating heat flux using dual angle observations of radiative surface temperature. Int. J. Remote Sens., 25, 275289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monin, A. S., , and A. M. Obukhov, 1954: Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere near the ground. Akad. Nauk. U. S. S. R. Trud. Gefiz. Inst. Tr., 24, 163187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pahlow, M., , M. B. Parlange, , and F. Porté-Agel, 2001: On Monin–Obukhov similarity in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 99, 225248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paulson, C. A., 1970: The mathematical representation of wind speed and temperature profiles in the unstable atmospheric surface layer. J. Appl. Meteor., 9, 857861.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pleim, J. E., 2006: A simple, efficient solution of flux–profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 341347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santanello, J. A., , M. A. Friedl, , and M. B. Ek, 2007: Convective planetary boundary layer interactions with the land surface at diurnal time scales: Diagnostics and feedbacks. J. Hydrometeor., 8, 10821097.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt, G. A., and Coauthors, 2006: Present-day atmospheric simulations using GISS ModelE: Comparison to in situ, satellite, and reanalysis data. J. Climate, 19, 153192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skamarock, W. C., and Coauthors, 2008: A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech Note NCAR/TN-475+STR, 113 pp. [Available online at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/docs/arw_v3.pdf.]

  • Stokes, G. M., , and S. E. Schwartz, 1994: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program: Programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75, 12011221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stull, R. B., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic, 666 pp.

  • Sun, J., 1999: Diurnal variations of thermal roughness height over a grassland. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 92, 407427.

  • Taylor, K. E., 2001: Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 71837192.

  • Twine, T. E., , W. P. Kustas, , J. M. Norman, , D. R. Cook, , P. R. Houser, , T. P. Meyers, , J. H. Prueger, , and P. J. Starks, 2000: Correcting eddy covariance flux underestimates over a grassland. Agric. For. Meteor., 103, 279300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van den Hurk, B. J. J. M., , F. Doblas-Reyes, , G. Balsamo, , R. D. Koster, , S. I. Seneviratne, , and H. Camargo Jr., 2012: Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe. Climate Dyn., 38, 349362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, W., , Y. Liu, , and A. K. Betts, 2012: Observationally-based evaluation of NWP reanalyses in modeling cloud properties over the southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D12202, doi:10.1029/2011JD016971.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, F., , H.-L. Pan, , S. K. Krueger, , S. Moorthi, , and S. J. Lord, 2006: Evaluation of the NCEP Global Forecast System at the ARM SGP Site. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 36683690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ye, Z., , and X. Jia, 1991: The impact of soil moisture availability upon the partition of net radiation into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 8, 339350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeng, X., , and R. E. Dickinson, 1998: Effect of surface sublayer on surface skin temperature and fluxes. J. Climate, 11, 537550.

  • Zhan, X., , W. Kustas, , and K. Humes, 1996: An intercomparison study on models of sensible heat flux over partial canopy surfaces with remotely sensed surface temperature. Remote Sens. Environ., S8, 242256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, D.-L., , and R. A. Anthes, 1982: A high-resolution model of the planetary boundary layer—Sensitivity tests and comparisons with SESAME-79 data. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 15941609.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zibognon, M., , R. Crago, , and A. Suleiman, 2002: Conversion of radiometric to aerodynamic surface temperature with an anisothermal canopy model. Water Resour. Res., 38, 1067, doi:10.1029/2001WR000484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zilitinkevich, S. S., 1970: Dynamics of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Leningrad Gidrometeor, 291 pp.

  • Zilitinkevich, S. S., 1995: Non-local turbulent transport: pollution dispersion aspects of coherent structure of convective flows. Air Pollution III—Volume I. Air Pollution Theory and Simulation, H. Power, N. Moussiopoulos, and C.A. Brebbia, Eds., Computational Mechanics Publications, 53–60.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 46 46 4
PDF Downloads 29 29 2

Evaluation of Surface Flux Parameterizations with Long-Term ARM Observations

View More View Less
  • 1 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
  • | 2 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Surface momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat fluxes are critical for atmospheric processes such as clouds and precipitation, and are parameterized in a variety of models ranging from cloud-resolving models to large-scale weather and climate models. However, direct evaluation of the parameterization schemes for these surface fluxes is rare due to limited observations. This study takes advantage of the long-term observations of surface fluxes collected at the Southern Great Plains site by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program to evaluate the six surface flux parameterization schemes commonly used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and three U.S. general circulation models (GCMs). The unprecedented 7-yr-long measurements by the eddy correlation (EC) and energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) methods permit statistical evaluation of all six parameterizations under a variety of stability conditions, diurnal cycles, and seasonal variations. The statistical analyses show that the momentum flux parameterization agrees best with the EC observations, followed by latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and evaporation ratio/Bowen ratio. The overall performance of the parameterizations depends on atmospheric stability, being best under neutral stratification and deteriorating toward both more stable and more unstable conditions. Further diagnostic analysis reveals that in addition to the parameterization schemes themselves, the discrepancies between observed and parameterized sensible and latent heat fluxes may stem from inadequate use of input variables such as surface temperature, moisture availability, and roughness length. The results demonstrate the need for improving the land surface models and measurements of surface properties, which would permit the evaluation of full land surface models.

Corresponding author address: Gang Liu, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China. E-mail: gangliu@nju.edu.cn

Abstract

Surface momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat fluxes are critical for atmospheric processes such as clouds and precipitation, and are parameterized in a variety of models ranging from cloud-resolving models to large-scale weather and climate models. However, direct evaluation of the parameterization schemes for these surface fluxes is rare due to limited observations. This study takes advantage of the long-term observations of surface fluxes collected at the Southern Great Plains site by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program to evaluate the six surface flux parameterization schemes commonly used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and three U.S. general circulation models (GCMs). The unprecedented 7-yr-long measurements by the eddy correlation (EC) and energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) methods permit statistical evaluation of all six parameterizations under a variety of stability conditions, diurnal cycles, and seasonal variations. The statistical analyses show that the momentum flux parameterization agrees best with the EC observations, followed by latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and evaporation ratio/Bowen ratio. The overall performance of the parameterizations depends on atmospheric stability, being best under neutral stratification and deteriorating toward both more stable and more unstable conditions. Further diagnostic analysis reveals that in addition to the parameterization schemes themselves, the discrepancies between observed and parameterized sensible and latent heat fluxes may stem from inadequate use of input variables such as surface temperature, moisture availability, and roughness length. The results demonstrate the need for improving the land surface models and measurements of surface properties, which would permit the evaluation of full land surface models.

Corresponding author address: Gang Liu, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China. E-mail: gangliu@nju.edu.cn
Save