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Convection-Permitting Forecasts Initialized with Continuously Cycling Limited-Area 3DVAR, Ensemble Kalman Filter, and “Hybrid” Variational–Ensemble Data Assimilation Systems

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  • 1 National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado
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Abstract

Analyses with 20-km horizontal grid spacing were produced from parallel continuously cycling three-dimensional variational (3DVAR), ensemble square root Kalman filter (EnSRF), and “hybrid” variational–ensemble data assimilation (DA) systems between 0000 UTC 6 May and 0000 UTC 21 June 2011 over a domain spanning the contiguous United States. Beginning 9 May, the 0000 UTC analyses initialized 36-h Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) forecasts containing a large convection-permitting 4-km nest. These 4-km 3DVAR-, EnSRF-, and hybrid-initialized forecasts were compared to benchmark WRF forecasts initialized by interpolating 0000 UTC Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses onto the computational domain.

While important differences regarding mean state characteristics of the 20-km DA systems were noted, verification efforts focused on the 4-km precipitation forecasts. The 3DVAR-, hybrid-, and EnSRF-initialized 4-km precipitation forecasts performed similarly regarding general precipitation characteristics, such as timing of the diurnal cycle, and all three forecast sets had high precipitation biases at heavier rainfall rates. However, meaningful differences emerged regarding precipitation placement as quantified by the fractions skill score. For most forecast hours, the hybrid-initialized 4-km precipitation forecasts were better than the EnSRF-, 3DVAR-, and GFS-initialized forecasts, and the improvement was often statistically significant at the 95th percentile. These results demonstrate the potential of limited-area continuously cycling hybrid DA configurations and suggest additional hybrid development is warranted.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: Craig Schwartz, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3090 Center Green Dr., Boulder, CO 80301. E-mail: schwartz@ucar.edu

Abstract

Analyses with 20-km horizontal grid spacing were produced from parallel continuously cycling three-dimensional variational (3DVAR), ensemble square root Kalman filter (EnSRF), and “hybrid” variational–ensemble data assimilation (DA) systems between 0000 UTC 6 May and 0000 UTC 21 June 2011 over a domain spanning the contiguous United States. Beginning 9 May, the 0000 UTC analyses initialized 36-h Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) forecasts containing a large convection-permitting 4-km nest. These 4-km 3DVAR-, EnSRF-, and hybrid-initialized forecasts were compared to benchmark WRF forecasts initialized by interpolating 0000 UTC Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses onto the computational domain.

While important differences regarding mean state characteristics of the 20-km DA systems were noted, verification efforts focused on the 4-km precipitation forecasts. The 3DVAR-, hybrid-, and EnSRF-initialized 4-km precipitation forecasts performed similarly regarding general precipitation characteristics, such as timing of the diurnal cycle, and all three forecast sets had high precipitation biases at heavier rainfall rates. However, meaningful differences emerged regarding precipitation placement as quantified by the fractions skill score. For most forecast hours, the hybrid-initialized 4-km precipitation forecasts were better than the EnSRF-, 3DVAR-, and GFS-initialized forecasts, and the improvement was often statistically significant at the 95th percentile. These results demonstrate the potential of limited-area continuously cycling hybrid DA configurations and suggest additional hybrid development is warranted.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: Craig Schwartz, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3090 Center Green Dr., Boulder, CO 80301. E-mail: schwartz@ucar.edu
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