Improvement of Medium-Range Forecasts Using the Analog-Dynamical Method

Haipeng Yu College of Atmospheric Sciences and Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

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Jianping Huang College of Atmospheric Sciences and Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

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Jifan Chou College of Atmospheric Sciences and Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

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Abstract

This study further develops the analog-dynamical method and applies it to medium-range weather forecasts. By regarding the forecast field as a small disturbance superimposed on historical analog fields, historical analog errors can be used to estimate and correct forecast errors. This method is applied to 10-day forecasts from the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System (GRAPES). Both the distribution of atmospheric circulation and the pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) are considered in choosing the analog samples from a historical dataset for 2001–10 based on NCEP Final (FNL) data. The results demonstrate that the analog-dynamical method greatly reduces forecast errors and extends the period of validity of the global 500-hPa height field by 0.8 days, which is superior to results obtained using systematic correction. The correction effect at 500 hPa is increasingly significant when the lead time increases. Although the analogs are selected using 500-hPa height fields, the forecast skill at all vertical levels is improved. The average increase of the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) is 0.07, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) is decreased by 10 gpm on average at a lead time of 10 days. The magnitude of errors for most forecast fields, such as height, temperature, and kinetic energy is decreased considerably by inverse correction. The model improvement is primarily a result of improvement for planetary-scale waves, while the correction for synoptic-scale waves does not affect model forecast skill. As this method is easy to operate and transport to other sophisticated models, it could be appropriate for operational use.

Denotes Open Access content.

Corresponding author address: Jianping Huang, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, No. 222 Tianshui South Rd., Lanzhou, 730000, China. E-mail: hjp@lzu.edu.cn

Abstract

This study further develops the analog-dynamical method and applies it to medium-range weather forecasts. By regarding the forecast field as a small disturbance superimposed on historical analog fields, historical analog errors can be used to estimate and correct forecast errors. This method is applied to 10-day forecasts from the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System (GRAPES). Both the distribution of atmospheric circulation and the pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) are considered in choosing the analog samples from a historical dataset for 2001–10 based on NCEP Final (FNL) data. The results demonstrate that the analog-dynamical method greatly reduces forecast errors and extends the period of validity of the global 500-hPa height field by 0.8 days, which is superior to results obtained using systematic correction. The correction effect at 500 hPa is increasingly significant when the lead time increases. Although the analogs are selected using 500-hPa height fields, the forecast skill at all vertical levels is improved. The average increase of the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) is 0.07, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) is decreased by 10 gpm on average at a lead time of 10 days. The magnitude of errors for most forecast fields, such as height, temperature, and kinetic energy is decreased considerably by inverse correction. The model improvement is primarily a result of improvement for planetary-scale waves, while the correction for synoptic-scale waves does not affect model forecast skill. As this method is easy to operate and transport to other sophisticated models, it could be appropriate for operational use.

Denotes Open Access content.

Corresponding author address: Jianping Huang, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, No. 222 Tianshui South Rd., Lanzhou, 730000, China. E-mail: hjp@lzu.edu.cn
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