• Bergman, J. W., and H. H. Hendon, 2000: The impact of clouds on the seasonal cycle of radiative heating over the Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 545566, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<0545:TIOCOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cao, J., R. H. Huang, Y. Q. Xie, and Y. Tao, 2003: Evolution mechanism of the western Pacific subtropical high. Sci. China, 46, 257268, doi:10.1360/03yd9024.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cehelsky, P., and K. K. Tung, 1987: Theories of multiple equilibria and weather regimes—A critical reexamination. Part II: Baroclinic two-layer models. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 32823303, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<3282:TOMEAW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charney, J. G., and J. G. Devore, 1979: Multiple flow equilibria in the atmosphere and blocking. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 12051216, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<1205:MFEITA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, J. N., T. Zuo, and H. N. Wang, 2012: Variation of air-sea heat fluxes over the Indian Ocean and its influence on the onset of South China Sea summer monsoon. Oceanol. Limnol. Sin., 43 (5), 884890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • China National Climate Center, 2011: In this century, the climate of 2010 is quite unusual. China Meteorological News, 16 January 2011, 5th ed.

  • Dommenget, D., and M. Latif, 2002: A cautionary note on the interpretation of EOFs. J. Climate, 15, 216225, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0216:ACNOTI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, B. W., and J. F. Chou, 1988: The observational analysis and the theoretic simulation of the seasonal change of the western Pacific subtropical high ridge line (in Chinese). Acta Meteor. Sin., 3, 361363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fan, H., and J. H. Miao, 1996: Rossby soliton theory on the formation of subtropical and blocking highs. II. The critical layer (in Chinese). Acta Meteor. Sin., 54, 722729.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, M., R. Zhang, L. X. Qian, J. Ge, and J. Chen, 2014: Bifurcations in a nonlinear dynamical model between western Pacific subtropical high ridge line index and its summer monsoon impact factors. Discrete Dyn. Nature Soc., 2014, 70 9589, doi:10.1155/2014/709589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, M., D. Wang, R. Zhang, X. Chen, J.-J. Ge, and D. Yu, 2015: Reconstruction and forecast experiments of a statistical–dynamical model of the western Pacific subtropical high and East Asian summer monsoon factors. Wea. Forecasting, 30, 206216, doi:10.1175/WAF-D-14-00048.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, R. H., R. H. Zhang, and B. L. Yan, 2001: Dynamical effect of the zonal wind anomalies over tropical western Pacific on ENSO cycles. Sci. China, 44D, 10891098, doi:10.1007/BF02906865.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, Y. Y., H. J. Wang, K. Fan, and Y. Q. Gao, 2015: The western Pacific subtropical high after the 1970s: Westward or eastward shift? Climate Dyn., 44, 20352047, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2194-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437470, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, H., and I. Tsuda, 2009: On embedded bifurcation structure in some discretized vector fields. Chaos, 19, 03 3132, doi:10.1063/1.3212934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K. M., and H. Weng, 2002: Recurrent teleconnection patterns linking summertime precipitation variability over East Asia and North America. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80, 13091324, doi:10.2151/jmsj.80.1309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, H. M., A. G. Dai, T. J. Zhou, and J. Lu, 2010: Responses of East Asian summer monsoon to historical SST and atmospheric forcing during 1950–2000. Climate Dyn., 34, 501514, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0482-7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, M. C., and Z. X. Luo, 1983: The nonlinear mechanism of the abrupt change of the atmosphere general circulation during June and October (in Chinese). Sci. China, 26B (7), 746774.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, C. J., and S. Y. Tao, 1983: Northward jumping of the subtropical highs and CUSP catastrophe (in Chinese). Sci. China, 26B, 10651074.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lv, K. L., Y. Z. Xu, and Z. M. Tan, 1997: The Dynamic Meteorology (in Chinese). Nanjing University Press, 419 pp.

  • Mao, J., Z. Sun, and G. Wu, 2010: 20–50-day oscillation of summer Yangtze rainfall in response to intraseasonal variations in thesubtropical high over the western North Pacific and South China Sea. Climate Dyn., 34, 747761, doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0628-2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miu, J. H., and M. F. Ding, 1985: The abrupt change and seasonal change of the atmospheric equilibrium states driven by the thermal forcing, the northward jump of the subtropical high (in Chinese). Sci. China, 1B, 8796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miyasaka, T., and H. Nakamura, 2005: Structure and formation mechanisms of the Northern Hemisphere summertime subtropical highs. J. Climate, 18, 50465065, doi:10.1175/JCLI3599.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, J.-Y., J.-G. Jhun, S.-Y. Yim, and W.-M. Kim, 2010: Decadal changes in two types of the western North Pacific subtropical high in boreal summer associated with Asian summer monsoon/El Niño–Southern Oscillation connections. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D21129, doi:10.1029/2009JD013642.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qi, L., Z.-Q. Zhang, J.-H. He, and H. Chen, 2008: A probe into the maintaining mechanism of one type of the double-ridges processes of West Pacific subtropical high (in Chinese). Chin. J. Geophys., 51, 495504, doi:10.1002/cjg2.1240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seager, R., R. Murtugudde, N. Naik, A. Clement, N. Gordon, and J. Miller, 2003: Air–sea interaction and the seasonal cycle of the subtropical anticyclones. J. Climate, 16, 19481966, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<1948:AIATSC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Subrahmanyam, M. V., and D. X. Wang, 2011: Impact of latent heat flux on Indian summer monsoon during El Niño/La Niña years (in Chinese). J. Trop. Meteor., 17 (4), 430440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sui, C.-H., P.-H. Chung, and T. Li, 2007: Interannual and interdecadal variability of the summertime western North Pacific subtropical high. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L11701., doi:10.1029/2006GL029204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sui, D. D., Q. Xie, and D. X. Wang, 2012: A discuss on interannual to decadal variations of latent heat flux exchange over the South China Sea. Acta Oceanol. Sin., 34 (4), 2734.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taherdangkoo, M., M. Paziresh, M. Yazdi, and M. H. Bagheri, 2012: An efficient algorithm for function optimization: Modified stem cells algorithm. Central Euro. J. Eng., 3 (1), 3650.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, D., L. F. Sheng, H. Y. Gao, X. Yang, and J. K. Li, 2014: Relationship between latent heat flux–net flux over the Bay of Bengal and autumn rainfall in Shaanxi Province from September to October (in Chinese). Resour. Sci., 36 (4), 07730781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, H. J., 2001: The weakening of the Asian Monsoon circulation after the end of 1970’s. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18, 376386, doi:10.1007/BF02919316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, H. N., J. N. Chen, and T. Zuo, 2012: Interdecadal variability of the South China Sea monsoon and its relationship with latent heat flux in the Pacific Ocean (in Chinese). Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol., 30, 980984, doi:10.1007/s00343-012-1256-y.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y., and H. Q. Shi, 2005: Using OLR field to describe West Pacific subtropical high (in Chinese). J. PLA Univ. Sci. Technol., 6 (2), 193196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, B., and T. J. Zhou, 2008: Oceanic origin of the interannual and interdecadal variability of the summertime western Pacific subtropical high. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L13701, doi:10.1029/2008GL034584.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, D. M., W. S. Lu, N. G. Wu, J.-D. Qi, L. Yang, Q.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wang, 2013: Diagnostic analysis of abnormal meridional circulation during strong/weak South China Sea Summer Monsoon. J. Trop. Oceanogr., 32, 4858, doi:10.3969/j.issn.1009-5470.2013.05.007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, G. X., and Y. M. Liu, 1999: The effect of spatially no uniform heating on the formation and variation of subtropical high: Scale analysis (in Chinese). Acta Meteor. Sin., 57, 257263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, G. X., and Y. M. Liu, 2003: Summertime quadruplet heating pattern in the subtropics and the associated atmospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1201, doi:10.1029/2002GL016209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, G. X., J. F. Chou, Y. M. Liu, and J. H. He, 2002: Dynamic Aspects of the Formation and Variation of Subtropical Highs. Science Press, 314 pp.

  • Xu, C. H., Y. Q. Ni, and F. K. Zhu, 2001: A method for describing west Pacific subtropical high by OLR data (in Chinese). Quart. J. Appl. Meteor., 12 (3), 377382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhan, R. F., J. P. Li, and J. H. He, 2004: Influence of the double ridges of West Pacific subtropical high on the second MeiYu over the Yangtze River valley during 1998 (in Chinese). Acta Meteor. Sin., 62, 294307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., and Z. H. Yu, 2000: Numerical and dynamical analyses of heat source forcing and restricting subtropical high activity. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 17, 6171, doi:10.1007/s00376-000-0043-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y. H., P. W. Guo, and H. Zhou, 2005: Influence of heat source over the Bay of Bengal on Asian summer monsoon circulation and summer precipitation in China (in Chinese). J. Nanjing Inst. Meteor., 28 (1), 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, T. J., R. C. Yu, H. M. Li, and B. Wang, 2008: Ocean forcing to changes in global monsoon precipitation over the recent half-century. J. Climate, 21, 38333852, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2067.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, T. J., and Coauthors, 2009: Why the western Pacific subtropical high has extended westward since the late 1970s. J. Climate, 22, 21992215, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2527.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1 1 1
PDF Downloads 0 0 0

Catastrophe and Mechanism Analyses of Multiple Equilibria in the Western Pacific Subtropical High System Based on Objective Fitting of Spatial Basis Functions

View More View Less
  • 1 Research Center of Ocean Environment Numerical Simulation, Institute of Meteorology and Oceanography, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
  • | 2 No. 61741, PLA University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China
  • | 3 Research Center of Ocean Environment Numerical Simulation, Institute of Meteorology and Oceanography, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
Restricted access

Abstract

Scholars have been showing great interest in revealing the mechanisms that govern the activities of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH). However, the problem currently remains unresolved. In this paper, a new model is developed to reveal the dynamical mechanism of the WPSH abnormal activities. Variables in the partial differential vorticity equations based on latent heat flux are separated in space and time using Galerkin methods. To overcome three deficiencies of the traditional highly truncated spectral method, spatial basis functions are reconstructed from observation field time series based on a combination of empirical orthogonal function decomposition and genetic algorithm. Based on the atmospheric vorticity equation, nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the WPSH can be obtained using an objective spatial basis function. Moreover, dynamical characteristics and actions, such as bifurcation and catastrophe induced by latent heat flux factors, are analyzed. Results show that the latent heat flux field in the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal region determines the formation and rupture of the WPSH (such as the “double ridge” phenomenon). The enhancements of land–sea heating contrast and latent heat flux field in the South China Sea lead to WPSH abnormal activities and WPSH circulation anomalies, such as subtropical high northward jump and rapid westward extension. Linked with the real weather phenomena and the diagnostic analysis of the previous studies, the credibility of the bifurcation and catastrophe analysis is confirmed. This work documents new areas of research on the evolution mechanism of the WPSH under the action of latent heat flux from the view of chaotic dynamics.

Corresponding author address: Mei Hong, Research Center of Ocean Environment Numerical Simulation, Institute of Meteorology, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 211101, China. E-mail: flowerrainhm@126.com

Abstract

Scholars have been showing great interest in revealing the mechanisms that govern the activities of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH). However, the problem currently remains unresolved. In this paper, a new model is developed to reveal the dynamical mechanism of the WPSH abnormal activities. Variables in the partial differential vorticity equations based on latent heat flux are separated in space and time using Galerkin methods. To overcome three deficiencies of the traditional highly truncated spectral method, spatial basis functions are reconstructed from observation field time series based on a combination of empirical orthogonal function decomposition and genetic algorithm. Based on the atmospheric vorticity equation, nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the WPSH can be obtained using an objective spatial basis function. Moreover, dynamical characteristics and actions, such as bifurcation and catastrophe induced by latent heat flux factors, are analyzed. Results show that the latent heat flux field in the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal region determines the formation and rupture of the WPSH (such as the “double ridge” phenomenon). The enhancements of land–sea heating contrast and latent heat flux field in the South China Sea lead to WPSH abnormal activities and WPSH circulation anomalies, such as subtropical high northward jump and rapid westward extension. Linked with the real weather phenomena and the diagnostic analysis of the previous studies, the credibility of the bifurcation and catastrophe analysis is confirmed. This work documents new areas of research on the evolution mechanism of the WPSH under the action of latent heat flux from the view of chaotic dynamics.

Corresponding author address: Mei Hong, Research Center of Ocean Environment Numerical Simulation, Institute of Meteorology, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 211101, China. E-mail: flowerrainhm@126.com
Save