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  • Zhu, K. F., Y. Yang, and M. Xue, 2015: Percentile-based neighborhood precipitation verification and its application to a landfalling tropical storm case with radar data assimilation. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32, 14491459, doi:10.1007/s00376-015-5023-9.

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Ensemble Probabilistic Prediction of a Mesoscale Convective System and Associated Polarimetric Radar Variables Using Single-Moment and Double-Moment Microphysics Schemes and EnKF Radar Data Assimilation

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  • 1 Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, and Advanced Radar Research Center, and School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 2 Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, and School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 3 Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 4 Advanced Radar Research Center, and School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
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Abstract

Ensemble-based probabilistic forecasts are performed for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that occurred over Oklahoma on 8–9 May 2007, initialized from ensemble Kalman filter analyses using multinetwork radar data and different microphysics schemes. Two experiments are conducted, using either a single-moment or double-moment microphysics scheme during the 1-h-long assimilation period and in subsequent 3-h ensemble forecasts. Qualitative and quantitative verifications are performed on the ensemble forecasts, including probabilistic skill scores. The predicted dual-polarization (dual-pol) radar variables and their probabilistic forecasts are also evaluated against available dual-pol radar observations, and discussed in relation to predicted microphysical states and structures.

Evaluation of predicted reflectivity (Z) fields shows that the double-moment ensemble predicts the precipitation coverage of the leading convective line and stratiform precipitation regions of the MCS with higher probabilities throughout the forecast period compared to the single-moment ensemble. In terms of the simulated differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) fields, the double-moment ensemble compares more realistically to the observations and better distinguishes the stratiform and convective precipitation regions. The ZDR from individual ensemble members indicates better raindrop size sorting along the leading convective line in the double-moment ensemble. Various commonly used ensemble forecast verification methods are examined for the prediction of dual-pol variables. The results demonstrate the challenges associated with verifying predicted dual-pol fields that can vary significantly in value over small distances. Several microphysics biases are noted with the help of simulated dual-pol variables, such as substantial overprediction of KDP values in the single-moment ensemble.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Ming Xue, mxue@ou.edu

Abstract

Ensemble-based probabilistic forecasts are performed for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that occurred over Oklahoma on 8–9 May 2007, initialized from ensemble Kalman filter analyses using multinetwork radar data and different microphysics schemes. Two experiments are conducted, using either a single-moment or double-moment microphysics scheme during the 1-h-long assimilation period and in subsequent 3-h ensemble forecasts. Qualitative and quantitative verifications are performed on the ensemble forecasts, including probabilistic skill scores. The predicted dual-polarization (dual-pol) radar variables and their probabilistic forecasts are also evaluated against available dual-pol radar observations, and discussed in relation to predicted microphysical states and structures.

Evaluation of predicted reflectivity (Z) fields shows that the double-moment ensemble predicts the precipitation coverage of the leading convective line and stratiform precipitation regions of the MCS with higher probabilities throughout the forecast period compared to the single-moment ensemble. In terms of the simulated differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) fields, the double-moment ensemble compares more realistically to the observations and better distinguishes the stratiform and convective precipitation regions. The ZDR from individual ensemble members indicates better raindrop size sorting along the leading convective line in the double-moment ensemble. Various commonly used ensemble forecast verification methods are examined for the prediction of dual-pol variables. The results demonstrate the challenges associated with verifying predicted dual-pol fields that can vary significantly in value over small distances. Several microphysics biases are noted with the help of simulated dual-pol variables, such as substantial overprediction of KDP values in the single-moment ensemble.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Ming Xue, mxue@ou.edu
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