• Abarca, S. F., and K. L. Corbosiero, 2011: Secondary eyewall formation in WRF simulations of Hurricanes Rita and Katrina (2005). Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L07802, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abarca, S. F., and M. T. Montgomery, 2013: Essential dynamics of secondary eyewall formation. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 32163230, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0318.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abarca, S. F., and M. T. Montgomery, 2015: Are eyewall replacement cycles governed largely by axisymmetric balance dynamics? J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 8287, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-14-0151.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abarca, S. F., M. T. Montgomery, S. A. Braun, and J. Dunion, 2016: On the secondary eyewall formation of Hurricane Edouard (2014). Mon. Wea. Rev., 144, 33213331, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-15-0421.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, M. A., 1997: The effect of relative flow on the asymmetric structure in the interior of hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 703724, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<0703:TEORFO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, S. A., M. T. Montgomery, and Z. Pu, 2006: High-resolution simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: The organization of eyewall vertical motion. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1942, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3598.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cecil, D. J., E. J. Zipser, and S. W. Nesbitt, 2002: Reflectivity, ice scattering, and lightning characteristics of hurricane eyewalls and rainbands. Part I: Quantitative description. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 769784, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<0769:RISALC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbosiero, K. L., and J. Molinari, 2002: The effects of vertical wind shear on the distribution of convection in TCs. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 21102123, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<2110:TEOVWS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbosiero, K. L., J. Molinari, A. R. Aiyyer, and M. L. Black, 2006: The structure and evolution of Hurricane Elena (1985). Part II: Convective asymmetries and evidence for vortex Rossby waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 30733091, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR3250.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dai, Y., S. J. Majumdar, and D. S. Nolan, 2017: Secondary eyewall formation in tropical cyclones by outflow–jet interaction. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 19411958, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0322.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeMaria, M., 1996: The effect of vertical shear on TC intensity change. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 20762087, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<2076:TEOVSO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeMaria, M., M. Mainelli, L. K. Shay, J. A. Knaff, and J. Kaplan, 2005: Further improvements to the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS). Wea. Forecasting, 20, 531543, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF862.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Didlake, A. C., Jr., and R. A. Houze Jr., 2011: Kinematics of the secondary eyewall observed in Hurricane Rita (2005). J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 16201636, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JAS3715.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Didlake, A. C., Jr., G. M. Heymsfield, P. D. Reasor, and S. R. Guimond, 2017: Concentric eyewall asymmetries in Hurricane Gonzalo (2014) observed by airborne radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 729749, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-16-0175.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frank, W. M., and E. A. Ritchie, 2001: Effects of vertical wind shear on the intensity and structure of numerically simulated hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 22492269, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<2249:EOVWSO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gamache, J. F., 1997: Evaluation of a fully three-dimensional variational Doppler analysis technique. Preprints, 28th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 422–423.

  • Gamache, J. F., and F. Marks, 1995: Comparison of three airborne Doppler sampling techniques with airborne in situ wind observations in Hurricane Gustav (1990). J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12, 171181, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1995)012<0171:COTADS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hawkins, J. D., M. Helveston, T. F. Lee, F. J. Turk, K. Richardson, C. Sampson, J. Kent, and R. Wade, 2006: Tropical cyclone multiple eyewall configurations. 27th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Monterey, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 6B.1, https://ams.confex.com/ams/27Hurricanes/webprogram/Paper108864.html.

  • Heymsfield, G. M., J. B. Halverson, J. Simpson, L. Tian, and T. P. Bui, 2001: ER-2 Doppler radar investigations of the eyewall of Hurricane Bonnie during the Convection and Moisture Experiment-3. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 13101330, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1310:EDRIOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., Jr., S. S. Chen, B. F. Smull, W.-C. Lee, and M. M. Bell, 2007: Hurricane intensity and eyewall replacement. Science, 315, 12351239, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1135650.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, Y.-H., M. T. Montgomery, and C.-C. Wu, 2012: Concentric eyewall formation in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008). Part II: Axisymmetric dynamical processes. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 662674, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0114.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, S. C., 1995: The evolution of vortices in vertical shear. I: Initially barotropic vortices. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121, 821851, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712152406.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jorgensen, D. F., 1984: Mesoscale and convective scale characteristics of mature hurricanes. Part I: General observations by research aircraft. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 12681286, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1984)041<1268:MACSCO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kepert, J. D., 2013: How does the boundary layer contribute to the eyewall replacement cycles in axisymmetric tropical cyclones? J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 28082830, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-046.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kepert, J. D., 2017: Time and space scales in the tropical cyclone boundary layer, and the location of the eyewall updraft. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 33053323, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-17-0077.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klotz, B. W., and H. Jiang, 2017: Examination of surface wind asymmetries in tropical cyclones. Part I: General structure and wind shear impacts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 39894009, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-17-0019.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kossin, J. P., and M. Sitkowski, 2009: An objective model for identifying secondary eyewall formation in hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 876892, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2701.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kossin, J. P., and M. DeMaria, 2016: Reducing operational hurricane intensity forecast errors during eyewall replacement cycles. Wea. Forecasting, 31, 601608, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-15-0123.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mallen, K. J., M. T. Montgomery, and B. Wang, 2005: Reexamining the near-core radial structure of the TC primary circulation: Implications for vortex resiliency. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 408425, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-3377.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molinari, J., and D. Vollaro, 2008: Extreme helicity and intense convective towers in Hurricane Bonnie. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 43554375, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2423.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molinari, J., and D. Vollaro, 2010: Rapid intensification of a sheared tropical storm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 38693885, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010MWR3378.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montgomery, M. T., and R. J. Kallenbach, 1997: A theory for vortex Rossby-waves and its application to spiral bands and intensity changes in hurricanes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 435465, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712353810.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nguyen, L. T., and J. Molinari, 2012: Rapid intensification of a sheared, fast-moving hurricane over the Gulf Stream. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 33613378, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00293.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nolan, D. S., Y. Moon, and D. P. Stern, 2007: Tropical cyclone intensification from asymmetric convection: Energetics and efficiency. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 33773405, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3988.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nong, S., and K. Emanuel, 2003: A numerical study of the genesis of concentric eyewalls in hurricanes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 33233338, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.01.132.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pendergrass, A. G., and H. E. Willoughby, 2009: Diabatically induced secondary flows in tropical cyclones. Part I: Quasi-steady forcing. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 805821, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2657.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rappaport, E. N., and Coauthors, 2009: Advances and challenges at the National Hurricane Center. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 395419, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008WAF2222128.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reasor, P. D., and M. D. Eastin, 2012: Rapidly intensifying Hurricane Guillermo (1997). Part II: Resilience in shear. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 425444, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00080.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reasor, P. D., M. T. Montgomery, and L. D. Grasso, 2004: A new look at the problem of tropical cyclones in vertical shear flow: Vortex resiliency. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 322, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0003:ANLATP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reasor, P. D., M. D. Eastin, and J. F. Gamache, 2009: Rapidly intensifying Hurricane Guillermo (1997). Part I: Low-wavenumber structure and evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 603631, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2487.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riemer, M., M. T. Montgomery, and M. E. Nicholls, 2010: A new paradigm for intensity modification of TCs: Thermodynamic impact of vertical wind shear on the inflow layer. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 31633188, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-3163-2010.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, R. F., S. S. Chen, J. Tenerelli, and H. E. Willoughby, 2003: A numerical study of the impact of vertical shear on the distribution of rainfall in Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 15771599, https://doi.org/10.1175//2546.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, R. F., S. Lorsolo, P. Reasor, J. Gamache, and F. Marks, 2012: Multiscale analysis of tropical cyclone kinematic structure from airborne Doppler radar composites. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 7799, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-10-05075.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, R. F., P. D. Reasor, and J. A. Zhang, 2015: Multiscale structure and evolution of Hurricane Earl (2010) during rapid intensification. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 536562, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-14-00175.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rozoff, C. M., D. S. Nolan, J. P. Kossin, F. Zhang, and J. Fang, 2012: The roles of an expanding wind field and inertial stability in tropical cyclone secondary eyewall formation. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 26212643, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0326.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shelton, K. L., and J. Molinari, 2009: Life of a six-hour hurricane. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 5167, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2472.1.

  • Simpson, R., and R. Riehl, 1958: Mid-tropospheric ventilation as a constraint on hurricane development and maintenance. Preprints, Tech. Conf. on Hurricanes, Miami Beach, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., D4-1–D4-10.

  • Sitkowski, M., J. P. Kossin, and C. M. Rozoff, 2011: Intensity and structure changes during hurricane eyewall replacement cycles. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 38293847, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00034.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tang, B., and K. Emanuel, 2010: Midlevel ventilation’s constraint on TC intensity. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 18171830, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JAS3318.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Terwey, W. D., and M. T. Montgomery, 2008: Secondary eyewall formation in two idealized, full‐physics modeled hurricanes. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12112, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008897.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uhlhorn, E. W., B. W. Klotz, T. Vukicevic, P. D. Reasor, and R. F. Rogers, 2014: Observed hurricane wind speed asymmetries and relationships to motion and environmental shear. Mon. Wea. Rev., 142, 12901311, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-13-00249.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vigh, J. L., and W. H. Schubert, 2009: Rapid development of the tropical cyclone warm core. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 33353350, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JAS3092.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wentz, F. J., C. Gentemann, D. Smith, and D. Chelton, 2000: Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature through clouds. Science, 288, 847850, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.288.5467.847.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willoughby, H. E., and M. B. Chelmow, 1982: Objective determination of hurricane tracks from aircraft observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 12981305, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<1298:ODOHTF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willoughby, H. E., J. A. Clos, and M. G. Shoreibah, 1982: Concentric eye walls, secondary wind maxima, and the evolution of the hurricane vortex. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 395411, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<0395:CEWSWM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willoughby, H. E., F. D. Marks Jr., and R. J. Feinberg, 1984: Stationary and moving convective bands in hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 31893211, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1984)041<3189:SAMCBI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, F., D. Tao, Y. Qiang Sun, and J. D. Kepert, 2017: Dynamics and predictability of secondary eyewall formation in sheared TCs. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 9, 89112, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016MS000729.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J. A., R. F. Rogers, P. D. Reasor, E. W. Uhlhorn, and F. D. Marks Jr., 2013: Asymmetric hurricane boundary layer structure from dropsonde composites in relation to the environmental vertical wind shear. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 39683984, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-12-00335.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, T., D.-L. Zhang, and F. H. Weng, 2004: Numerical simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: Eyewall evolution and intensity changes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 225241, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0225:NSOHBP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, Z., and P. Zhu, 2014: The role of outer rainband convection in governing the eyewall replacement cycle in numerical simulations of tropical cyclones. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 80498072, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD021899.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 24 24 24
PDF Downloads 1 1 1

Hurricane Bonnie (1998): Maintaining Intensity during High Vertical Wind Shear and an Eyewall Replacement Cycle

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • | 2 Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York
  • | 3 Hurricane Research Division, NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida
  • | 4 NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information, Madison, Wisconsin
Restricted access

Abstract

Hurricane Bonnie (1998) was an unusually resilient hurricane that maintained a steady-state intensity while experiencing strong (12–16 m s−1) vertical wind shear and an eyewall replacement cycle. This remarkable behavior was examined using observations from flight-level data, microwave imagery, radar, and dropsondes over the 2-day period encompassing these events. Similar to other observed eyewall replacement cycles, Bonnie exhibited the development, strengthening, and dominance of a secondary eyewall while a primary eyewall decayed. However, Bonnie’s structure was highly asymmetric because of the large vertical wind shear, in contrast to the more symmetric structures observed in other hurricanes undergoing eyewall replacement cycles. It is hypothesized that the unusual nature of Bonnie’s evolution arose as a result of an increase in vertical wind shear from 2 to 12 m s−1 even as the storm intensified to a major hurricane in the presence of high ambient sea surface temperatures. These circumstances allowed for the development of outer rainbands with intense convection downshear, where the formation of the outer eyewall commenced. In addition, the circulation broadened considerably during this time. The secondary eyewall developed within a well-defined beta skirt in the radial velocity profile, consistent with an earlier theory. Despite the large ambient vertical wind shear, the outer eyewall steadily extended upshear, supported by 35% larger surface wind speed upshear than downshear. The larger radius of maximum winds during and after the eyewall replacement cycle might have aided Bonnie’s resiliency directly, but also increased the likelihood that diabatic heating would fall inside the radius of maximum winds.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Erin M. Dougherty, edough@rams.colostate.edu

Abstract

Hurricane Bonnie (1998) was an unusually resilient hurricane that maintained a steady-state intensity while experiencing strong (12–16 m s−1) vertical wind shear and an eyewall replacement cycle. This remarkable behavior was examined using observations from flight-level data, microwave imagery, radar, and dropsondes over the 2-day period encompassing these events. Similar to other observed eyewall replacement cycles, Bonnie exhibited the development, strengthening, and dominance of a secondary eyewall while a primary eyewall decayed. However, Bonnie’s structure was highly asymmetric because of the large vertical wind shear, in contrast to the more symmetric structures observed in other hurricanes undergoing eyewall replacement cycles. It is hypothesized that the unusual nature of Bonnie’s evolution arose as a result of an increase in vertical wind shear from 2 to 12 m s−1 even as the storm intensified to a major hurricane in the presence of high ambient sea surface temperatures. These circumstances allowed for the development of outer rainbands with intense convection downshear, where the formation of the outer eyewall commenced. In addition, the circulation broadened considerably during this time. The secondary eyewall developed within a well-defined beta skirt in the radial velocity profile, consistent with an earlier theory. Despite the large ambient vertical wind shear, the outer eyewall steadily extended upshear, supported by 35% larger surface wind speed upshear than downshear. The larger radius of maximum winds during and after the eyewall replacement cycle might have aided Bonnie’s resiliency directly, but also increased the likelihood that diabatic heating would fall inside the radius of maximum winds.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Erin M. Dougherty, edough@rams.colostate.edu
Save