This paper describes an observational study for the geometrical properties of hydrometeors during a refreezing process initiated by a winter storm in the northern Kanto Plain, Japan, on 29 January 2016, in which a subfreezing layer developed below a melting layer. The observations by using dual-polarization radar showed consistency between high values of differential reflectivity ZDR signals in midair and ice-pellet reports at the surface. The high ZDR was indicative of the sideways-oriented particles with a small axis ratio. The low ZDR signals in midair corresponded with the reports of rain or rain/ice-pellet mixtures. Observations by using a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) near the ground showed different microphysics corresponding to high ZDR and low ZDR periods. The high ZDR periods of 2DVD observations indicated that the hydrometeors exhibited dual modes of fall velocities, namely, fast-falling and slow-falling modes. The fast-falling particles were found to be deformed ice pellets with long sideways orientations that contributed to the high ZDR. The slow-falling particles were also deformed ice pellets but with a variety of orientations. This feature was rather close to that of general dry conditions of ice particles in the atmosphere. Meanwhile, the low ZDR periods of 2DVD observations indicated that the hydrometeors exhibited a single mode of fall velocity close to the terminal velocity of raindrops, but with a more spherical shape compared to raindrops. Hence, it is suggested that the high ZDR signal occurs during freezing between the initial stage of spherical ice forming and completely freezing stage of ice pellets with a variety of orientations.
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