Characteristics of Intense Convection in Subtropical South America as Influenced by El Niño–Southern Oscillation

Zachary S. Bruick Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

Search for other papers by Zachary S. Bruick in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kristen L. Rasmussen Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

Search for other papers by Kristen L. Rasmussen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Angela K. Rowe Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Search for other papers by Angela K. Rowe in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Lynn A. McMurdie Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Search for other papers by Lynn A. McMurdie in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is known to have teleconnections to atmospheric circulations and weather patterns around the world. Previous studies have examined connections between ENSO and rainfall in tropical South America, but little work has been done connecting ENSO phases with convection in subtropical South America. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) has provided novel observations of convection in this region, including that convection in the lee of the Andes Mountains is among the deepest and most intense in the world with frequent upscale growth into mesoscale convective systems. A 16-yr dataset from the TRMM PR is used to analyze deep and wide convection in combination with ERA-Interim reanalysis storm composites. Results from the study show that deep and wide convection occurs in all phases of ENSO, with only some modest variations in frequency between ENSO phases. However, the most statistically significant differences between ENSO phases occur in the three-dimensional storm structure. Deep and wide convection during El Niño tends to be taller and contain stronger convection, while La Niña storms contain stronger stratiform echoes. The synoptic and thermodynamic conditions supporting the deeper storms during El Niño is related to increased convective available potential energy, a strengthening of the South American low-level jet (SALLJ), and a stronger upper-level jet stream, often with the equatorward-entrance region of the jet stream directly over the convective storm locations. These enhanced synoptic and thermodynamic conditions provide insight into how the structure of some of the most intense convection on Earth varies with phases of ENSO.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Zachary S. Bruick, zbruick@rams.colostate.edu

Abstract

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is known to have teleconnections to atmospheric circulations and weather patterns around the world. Previous studies have examined connections between ENSO and rainfall in tropical South America, but little work has been done connecting ENSO phases with convection in subtropical South America. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) has provided novel observations of convection in this region, including that convection in the lee of the Andes Mountains is among the deepest and most intense in the world with frequent upscale growth into mesoscale convective systems. A 16-yr dataset from the TRMM PR is used to analyze deep and wide convection in combination with ERA-Interim reanalysis storm composites. Results from the study show that deep and wide convection occurs in all phases of ENSO, with only some modest variations in frequency between ENSO phases. However, the most statistically significant differences between ENSO phases occur in the three-dimensional storm structure. Deep and wide convection during El Niño tends to be taller and contain stronger convection, while La Niña storms contain stronger stratiform echoes. The synoptic and thermodynamic conditions supporting the deeper storms during El Niño is related to increased convective available potential energy, a strengthening of the South American low-level jet (SALLJ), and a stronger upper-level jet stream, often with the equatorward-entrance region of the jet stream directly over the convective storm locations. These enhanced synoptic and thermodynamic conditions provide insight into how the structure of some of the most intense convection on Earth varies with phases of ENSO.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Zachary S. Bruick, zbruick@rams.colostate.edu
Save
  • Allen, J. T., M. K. Tippett, and A. H. Sobel, 2015: Influence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation on tornado and hail frequency in the United States. Nat. Geosci., 8, 278283, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2385.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, C. J., and R. W. Arritt, 2001: Mesoscale convective systems over the United States during the 1997–98 El Niño. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 24432457, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<2443:MCSOTU>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arkin, P. A., 1982: The relationship between interannual variability in the 200 mb tropical wind field and the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 13931404, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<1393:TRBIVI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Awaka, J., T. Iguchi, H. Kumagai, and K. Okamoto, 1997: Rain type classification algorithm for TRMM precipitation radar. Proc. Remote Sensing—A Scientific Vision for Sustainable Development (IGARSS’97), 1997 IEEE Int. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symp., Vol. 4, Singapore, IEEE International, 1633–1635, https://doi.org/10.1109/IGARSS.1997.608993.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bjerknes, J., 1969: Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 163172, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1969)097<0163:ATFTEP>2.3.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blamey, R. C., C. Middleton, C. Lennard, and C. J. C. Reason, 2017: A climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa. Climate Dyn., 49, 21612178, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3434-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camilloni, I. A., and V. R. Barros, 2003: Extreme discharge events in the Parana River and their climate forcing. J. Hydrol., 278, 94106, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00133-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cavalcanti, I. F. A., and Coauthors, 2015: Precipitation extremes over La Plata Basin—Review and new results from observations and climate simulations. J. Hydrol., 523, 211230, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.01.028.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chronis, T. G., S. J. Goodman, D. Cecil, D. Buechler, F. J. Robertson, J. Pittman, and R. J. Blakeslee, 2008: Global lightning activity from the ENSO perspective. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L19804, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034321.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, A. R., and J. T. Schaefer, 2008: The relation of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to winter tornado outbreaks. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 31213137, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007MWR2171.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, A. R., L. M. Leslie, D. B. Parsons, and J. T. Schaefer, 2017: The impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on winter and early spring U.S. tornado outbreaks. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 56, 24552478, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0249.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dai, A., 2001: Global precipitation and thunderstorm frequencies. Part I: Seasonal and interannual variations. J. Climate, 14, 10921111, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1092:GPATFP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553597, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Durkee, J. D., T. L. Mote, and J. M. Shepherd, 2009: The contribution of mesoscale convective complexes to rainfall across subtropical South America. J. Climate, 22, 45904605, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2858.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Espinoza Villar, J. C., and Coauthors, 2009: Spatio-temporal rainfall variability in the Amazon basin countries (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador). Int. J. Climatol., 29, 15741594, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1791.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gonzalez, M. H., E. M. Garbarini, A. L. Rolla, and S. Eslamian, 2017: Meteorological drought indices: Rainfall prediction in Argentina. Handbook of Drought and Water Scarcity, Vol. 1: Principles of Drought and Water Scarcity, S. Eslamian and F. A. Eslamian, Eds., Taylor and Francis 541–570.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Grimm, A. M., and T. Ambrizzi, 2009: Teleconnections into South America from the tropics and extratropics on interannual and intraseasonal timescales. Past Climate Variability in South America and Surrounding Regions: From the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene, F. Vimeux, F. Sylvestre, and M. Khodri, Eds., Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research, Springer, 159–191 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2672-9_7.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Grimm, A. M., and R. G. Tedeschi, 2009: ENSO and extreme rainfall events in South America. J. Climate, 22, 15891609, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2429.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimm, A. M., V. R. Barros, and M. E. Doyle, 2000: Climate variability in southern South America associated with El Niño and La Niña events. J. Climate, 13, 3558, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0035:CVISSA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halpert, M. S., and C. F. Ropelewski, 1992: Surface temperature patterns associated with the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 5, 577593, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<0577:STPAWT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hendon, H. H., 2003: Indonesian rainfall variability: Impacts of ENSO and local air–sea interaction. J. Climate, 16, 17751790, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<1775:IRVIOE>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horel, J. D., and J. M. Wallace, 1981: Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 813829, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., Jr., 2004: Mesoscale convective systems. Rev. Geophys., 42, RG4003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004RG000150.

  • Houze, R. A., Jr., D. C. Wilton, and B. F. Smull, 2007: Monsoon convection in the Himalayan region as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133, 13891411, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., Jr., K. L. Rasmussen, M. D. Zuluaga, and S. R. Brodzik, 2015: The variable nature of convection in the tropics and subtropics: A legacy of 16 years of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. Rev. Geophys., 53, 9941021, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015RG000488.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huffman, G. J., and Coauthors, 2007: The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales. J. Hydrometeor., 8, 3855, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM560.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iguchi, T., T. Kozu, R. Meneghini, J. Awaka, and K. Okamoto, 2000: Rain-profiling algorithm for the TRMM Precipitation Radar. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 20382052, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<2038:RPAFTT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iguchi, T., T. Kozu, J. Kwiatkowski, R. Meneghini, J. Awaka, and K. Okamoto, 2009: Uncertainties in the rain profiling algorithm for the TRMM Precipitation Radar. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87A, 130, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.87A.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karoly, D. J., 1989: Southern Hemisphere circulation features associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation events. J. Climate, 2, 12391252, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1989)002<1239:SHCFAW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karyampudi, V. M., M. L. Kaplan, S. E. Koch, and R. J. Zamora, 1995: The influence of the Rocky Mountain on the 13–14 April 1986 severe weather outbreak. Part I: Mesoscale lee cyclogenesis and its relationship to severe weather and dust storms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 13941422, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1394:TIOTRM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kousky, V. E., M. T. Kagano, and I. F. A. Cavalcanti, 1984: A review of the Southern Oscillation: Oceanic-atmospheric circulation changes and related rainfall anomalies. Tellus, 36A, 490504, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.1984.tb00264.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kummerow, C., W. Barnes, T. Kozu, J. Shiue, and J. Simpson, 1998: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) sensor package. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 809817, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<0809:TTRMMT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kummerow, C., and Coauthors, 2000: The status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after two years in orbit. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 19651982, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1965:TSOTTR>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, S.-K., B. E. Mapes, C. Wang, D. B. Enfield, and S. J. Weaver, 2014: Springtime ENSO phase evolution and its relation to rainfall in the continental U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 16731680, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL059137.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lichtenstein, E. R., 1980: La depresión del Noroeste argentino. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires, 137 pp., https://digital.bl.fcen.uba.ar/download/tesis/tesis_n1649_Lichtenstein.pdf.

  • Liebmann, B., and J. A. Marengo, 2001: Interannual variability of the rainy season and rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. J. Climate, 14, 43084318, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<4308:IVOTRS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parhi, P., A. Giannini, P. Gentine, and U. Lall, 2016: Resolving contrasting regional rainfall responses to El Niño over tropical Africa. J. Climate, 29, 14611476, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0071.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qie, X., X. Wu, T. Yuan, J. Bian, and D. Lu, 2014: Comprehensive pattern of deep convective systems over the Tibetan Plateau–South Asian monsoon region based on TRMM data. J. Climate, 27, 66126626, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00076.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, K. L., and R. A. Houze, 2011: Orogenic convection in subtropical South America as seen by the TRMM satellite. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 23992420, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-10-05006.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, K. L., and R. A. Houze, 2016: Convective initiation near the Andes in subtropical South America. Mon. Wea. Rev., 144, 23512374, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-15-0058.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, K. L., S. L. Choi, M. D. Zuluaga, and R. A. Houze, 2013: TRMM precipitation bias in extreme storms in South America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 34573461, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50651.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, K. L., M. D. Zuluaga, and R. A. Houze, 2014: Severe convection and lightning in subtropical South America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 73597366, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061767.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, K. L., M. M. Chaplin, M. D. Zuluaga, and R. A. Houze, 2016: Contribution of extreme convective storms to rainfall in South America. J. Hydrometeor., 17, 353367, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-15-0067.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmusson, E. M., and T. H. Carpenter, 1983: The relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 517528, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0517:TRBEEP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander, D. P. Rowell, E. C. Kent, and A. Kaplan, 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4407, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002670.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Romatschke, U., and R. A. Houze, 2010: Extreme summer convection in South America. J. Climate, 23, 37613791, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3465.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Romatschke, U., and R. A. Houze, 2011: Characteristics of precipitating convective systems in the South Asian monsoon. J. Hydrometeor., 12, 326, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JHM1289.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Romatschke, U., S. Medina, and R. A. Houze, 2010: Regional, seasonal, and diurnal variations of extreme convection in the South Asian region. J. Climate, 23, 419439, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3140.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 16061626, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1606:GARSPP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seluchi, M. E., A. C. Saulo, M. Nicolini, and P. Satyamurty, 2003: The northwestern Argentinean low: A study of two typical events. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 23612378, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2361:TNALAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sen Roy, S., S. B. Saha, S. K. R. Bhowmik, and P. K. Kundu, 2014: Optimization of nowcast software WDSS-II for operational application over the Indian region. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 124, 143166, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-014-0315-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shimizu, M. H., T. Ambrizzi, and B. Liebmann, 2017: Extreme precipitation events and their relationship with ENSO and MJO phases over northern South America. Int. J. Climatol., 37, 29772989, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4893.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Souza, E. B. D., and T. Ambrizzi, 2002: ENSO impacts on the South American rainfall during 1980s: Hadley and Walker circulation. Atmósfera, 15, 105120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sulca, J., K. Takahashi, J.-C. Espinoza, M. Vuille, and W. Lavado-Casimiro, 2017: Impacts of different ENSO flavors and tropical Pacific convection variability (ITCZ, SPCZ) on austral summer rainfall in South America, with a focus on Peru. Int. J. Climatol., 38, 420435, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5185.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tippett, M. K., J. T. Allen, V. A. Gensini, and H. E. Brooks, 2015: Climate and hazardous convective weather. Curr. Climate Change Rep., 1, 6073, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-015-0006-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., 1997: The definition of El Niño. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 27712778, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2771:TDOENO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Velasco, I., and J. M. Fritsch, 1987: Mesoscale convective complexes in the Americas. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 95919613, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD092iD08p09591.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784812, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0784:TITGHF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoshida, S., T. Morimoto, T. Ushio, and Z. Kawasaki, 2007: ENSO and convective activities in Southeast Asia and western Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21806, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030758.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuter, S. E., and R. A. Houze, 1995: Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 19411963, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zipser, E. J., C. Liu, D. J. Cecil, S. W. Nesbitt, and D. P. Yorty, 2006: Where are the most intense thunderstorms on earth? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 10571071, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-87-8-1057.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zuluaga, M. D., and R. A. Houze, 2015: Extreme convection of the near-equatorial Americas, Africa, and adjoining oceans as seen by TRMM. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 298316, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-14-00109.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1321 393 100
PDF Downloads 697 189 7