• Anderson, C. J., and R. W. Arritt, 1998: Mesoscale convective complexes and persistent elongated convective systems over the United States during 1992 and 1993. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 578599, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126<0578:MCCAPE>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, G. D., 2010: The first weather satellite picture. Weather, 65, 8787, https://doi.org/10.1002/wea.550.

  • Bai, L., G. Chen, and L. Huang, 2020: Image processing of radar mosaics for the climatology of convection initiation in South China. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 59, 6581, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0081.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blackadar, A. K., 1957: Boundary layer wind maxima and their significance for the growth of nocturnal inversions. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 38, 283290, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477-38.5.283.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bluestein, H. B., and M. H. Jain, 1985: Formation of mesoscale lines of precipitation: Severe squall lines in Oklahoma during the spring. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 17111732, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<1711:FOMLOP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carlberg, B. R., W. A. Gallus Jr., and K. J. Franz, 2018: A preliminary examination of WRF ensemble prediction of convective mode evolution. Wea. Forecasting, 33, 783798, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-17-0149.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, J., Y. Zheng, X. Zhang, and P. Zhu, 2013: Distribution and diurnal variation of warm-season short-duration heavy rainfall in relation to the MCSs in China. Acta Meteor. Sin., 27, 868888, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-013-0605-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Y., Y. Luo, and B. Liu, 2022: General features and synoptic-scale environments of mesoscale convective systems over South China during the 2013–2017 pre-summer rainy seasons. Atmos. Res., 266, 105954, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105954.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cotton, W. R., R. L. George, P. J. Wetzel, and R. L. McAnelly, 1983: A long-lived mesoscale convective complex. Part I: The mountain–generated component. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 18931918, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<1893:ALLMCC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, Y., and G. Chen, 2018: Heavy rainfall associated with double low-level jets over southern China. Part I: Ensemble-based analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 146, 38273844, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-18-0101.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, Y., and G. Chen, 2019a: Heavy rainfall associated with double low-level jets over southern China. Part II: Convection initiation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 147, 543565, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-18-0102.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, Y., and G. Chen, 2019b: Climatology of low-level jets and their impact on rainfall over southern China during the early-summer rainy season. J. Climate, 32, 88138833, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0306.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duda, J. D., and W. A. Gallus Jr., 2010: Spring and summer Midwestern severe weather reports in supercells compared to other morphologies. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 190206, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009WAF2222338.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feng, S., Q. Hu, and W. Qian, 2004: Quality control of daily meteorological data in China, 1951–2000: A new dataset. Int. J. Climatol., 24, 853870, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fujita, T. T., 1978: Manual of downburst identification for Project NIMROD. NOAA/NASA Tech. Rep. NRC-04-74-239, 118 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gallus, W. A., Jr., N. A. Snook, and E. V. Johnson, 2008: Spring and summer severe weather reports over the Midwest as a function of convective mode: A preliminary study. Wea. Forecasting, 23, 101113, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007WAF2006120.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geerts, B., 1998: Mesoscale convective systems in the southeast United States during 1994–95: A survey. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 860869, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1998)013<0860:MCSITS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoecker, W. H., Jr., 1963: Three southerly low-level jet systems delineated by the weather bureau special pibal network of 1961. Mon. Wea. Rev., 91, 573582, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1963)091<0573:TSLJSD>2.3.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., Jr., 1989: Observed structure of mesoscale convective systems and implications for large-scale heating. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115, 425461, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711548702.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., Jr., B. F. Smull, and P. Dodge, 1990: Mesoscale organization of springtime rainstorms in Oklahoma. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 613654, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<0613:MOOSRI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jirak, I. L., W. R. Cotton, and R. L. McAnelly, 2003: Satellite and radar survey of mesoscale convective system development. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 24282449, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2428:SARSOM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, J., B. Wang, and D. Wang, 2012: The characteristics of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over East Asia in warm seasons. Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett., 5, 102107, https://doi.org/10.1080/16742834.2012.11446973.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, Z., M. Lin, K. Lin, and H. Luo, 2014: A convective process of quasi-stationary front triggered by southward-moving weak cold air from Tibetan Plateau (in Chinese). J. Trop. Meteor., 30, 111118.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, L., Q. Xu, P. Zhang, and S. Liu, 2008: Automated detection of contaminated radar image pixels in mountain areas. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 25, 778790, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-008-0778-x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X., and X. Guo, 2012: Analysis and numerical simulation research on severe surface wind formation mechanism and structural characteristics of a squall line case (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 11501164, https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.11212.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Y., X. Yao, J. Fei, X. Yang, and J. Sun, 2021: Characteristics of mesoscale convective systems during the warm season over the Tibetan Plateau based on FY-2 satellite datasets. Int. J. Climatol., 41, 23012315, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6959.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lombardo, K. A., and B. A. Colle, 2010: The spatial and temporal distribution of organized convective structures over the northeast and their ambient conditions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 44564474, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010MWR3463.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, L., M. Xue, and K. Zhu, 2020 : The initiation and organization of a severe hail-producing mesoscale convective system in East China: A numerical study. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 125, e2020JD032606, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD032606.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Y., Y. Gong, and D.-L. Zhang, 2014: Initiation and organizational modes of an extreme-rain-producing mesoscale convective system along a mei-yu front in East China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 142, 203221, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-13-00111.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Y., and Coauthors, 2020: Science and prediction of heavy rainfall over China: Research progress since the reform and opening-up of new China. J. Meteor. Res., 34, 427459, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-020-0006-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, R., J. Sun, and X. Yang, 2021: A 7-yr climatology of the initiation, decay, and morphology of severe convective storms during the warm season over North China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 149, 25992612, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-20-0087.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maddox, R. A., 1980: Mesoscale convective complexes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 61, 13741400, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1980)061<1374:MCC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maddox, R. A., 1981: Satellite depiction of the life cycle of a mesoscale convective complex. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 15831586, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<1583:SDOTLC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maddox, R. A., 1983: Large-scale meteorological conditions associated with midlatitude, mesoscale convective complexes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 14751493, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<1475:LSMCAW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maddox, R. A., C. F. Chappell, and L. R. Hoxit, 1979: Synoptic and meso-α scale aspects of flash flood events. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 60, 115123, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477-60.2.115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meng, Z., and Y. Zhang, 2012: On the squall lines preceding landfalling tropical cyclones in China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 445470, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-10-05080.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meng, Z., D. Yan, and Y. Zhang, 2013: General features of squall lines in East China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 16291647, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-12-00208.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orlanski, I., 1975: A rational subdivision of scales for atmospheric processes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 56, 527530, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477-56.5.527.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pacey, G. P., D. M. Schultz, and L. Garcia-Carreras, 2021: Severe convective windstorms in Europe: Climatology, preconvective environments, and convective mode. Wea. Forecasting, 36, 237252, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-20-0075.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, M. D., and R. H. Johnson, 2000: Organizational modes of midlatitude mesoscale convective systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 34133436, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<3413:OMOMMC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pettet, C. R., and R. H. Johnson, 2003: Airflow and precipitation structure of two leading stratiform mesoscale convective systems determined from operational datasets. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 685699, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018<0685:AAPSOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ren, Z., and Coauthors, 2015: Development of three step quality control system of real time observation data from AWS in China (in Chinese). Meteor. Mon., 41, 12681277, https://doi.org/10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2015.10.010.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schiesser, H. H., R. A. Houze Jr., and H. Huntrieser, 1995: The mesoscale structure of severe precipitation systems in Switzerland. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 20702097, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<2070:TMSOSP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schoen, J. M., and W. S. Ashley, 2011: A climatology of fatal convective wind events by storm type. Wea. Forecasting, 26, 109121, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010WAF2222428.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schumacher, R. S., and K. L. Rasmussen, 2020: The formation, character and changing nature of mesoscale convective systems. Nat. Rev. Earth Environ., 1, 300314, https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-020-0057-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B. T., R. L. Thompson, J. S. Grams, C. Broyles, and H. E. Brooks, 2012: Convective modes for significant severe thunderstorms in the contiguous United States. Part I: Storm classification and climatology. Wea. Forecasting, 27, 11141135, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-11-00115.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Snively, D. V., and W. A. Gallus Jr., 2014: Prediction of convective morphology in near-cloud-permitting WRF Model simulations. Wea. Forecasting, 29, 130149, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-13-00047.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, Z., H. Wang, X. Wang, and Y. Ma, 1998: A survey of meso-α-scale convective systems over China during 1995 (in Chinese). Acta Meteor. Sin., 56, 166177, https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb1998.016.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trapp, R. J., S. A. Tessendorf, E. S. Godfrey, and H. E. Brooks, 2005: Tornadoes from squall lines and bow echoes. Part I: Climatological distribution. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 2334, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-835.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., 1975: Diurnal variations in precipitation and thunderstorm frequency over the conterminous United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 103, 406419, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1975)103<0406:DVIPAT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, H., Y. Luo, and B. J.-D. Jou, 2014: Initiation, maintenance, and properties of convection in an extreme rainfall event during SCMREX: Observational analysis. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos, 119, 13 206–13 232, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022339.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, X., and C. Cui, 2011: A number advances of the research on the heavy rain mesoscale convective systems (in Chinese). Torrential Rain Disasters, 30, 97106.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, N., X. Ding, Z. Wen, G. Chen, Z. Meng, L. Lin, and J. Min, 2020: Contrasting frontal and warm-sector heavy rainfalls over South China during the early-summer rainy season. Atmos. Res., 235, 104693, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.104693.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, X., and J. Sun, 2018: Organizational modes of severe wind-producing convective systems over North China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35, 540549, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-017-7114-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, X., J. Sun, and Y. Zheng, 2017: A 5-yr climatology of severe convective wind events over China. Wea. Forecasting, 32, 12891299, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-16-0101.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, X., and Y. Zheng, 2020: Advances in severe convection research and operation in China. J. Meteor. Res., 34, 189217, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-020-9875-2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, S., S. Tao, Q. Zhang, and J. Wei, 2002: Large and meso-α scale characteristics of intense rainfall in the mid- and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Chin. Sci. Bull., 47, 779786, https://doi.org/10.1360/02tb9176.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, L., J. Sun, and J. Wei, 2011: The diurnal variation of thunder events in China (in Chinese). Torrential Rain Disasters, 30, 137144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, L., J. Sun, X. Zhang, and C. Liu, 2013: Organizational modes of mesoscale convective systems over central East China. Wea. Forecasting, 28, 10811098, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-12-00088.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 310 310 30
Full Text Views 110 110 15
PDF Downloads 105 105 24

Organizational Modes of Spring and Summer Convective Storms and Associated Severe Weather over Southern China during 2015–19

Chenbin XueaKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education/Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
bGuangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Numerical Weather Prediction, Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou, China
cJiangxi Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Nanchang, China

Search for other papers by Chenbin Xue in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Xinyong ShenaKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education/Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
dSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai, China

Search for other papers by Xinyong Shen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Zhiying DingaKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education/Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Zhiying Ding in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Naigeng WuaKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education/Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
bGuangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Numerical Weather Prediction, Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou, China

Search for other papers by Naigeng Wu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yizhi ZhangcJiangxi Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Nanchang, China

Search for other papers by Yizhi Zhang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Xian CheneJiangxi Institute of Land and Space Survey and Planning/Jiangxi Geomatics Center, Nanchang, China

Search for other papers by Xian Chen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Chunyan GuofInner Mongolia Meteorological Service Center, Hohhot, China

Search for other papers by Chunyan Guo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

This study investigates the organizational modes of convective storms and associated severe weather in spring and summer (March–August) of 2015–19 over southern China. These storms are classified into three major organizational structures (cellular, linear, and nonlinear), including 10 dominant morphologies. In general, cellular systems are most frequent, followed by linear systems. Convective storms are common in spring, increasing markedly from April to June, and peak in June. Convective storm cases are usually longer lived in spring, while shorter lived in summer. They also present pronounced diurnal variations, with a primary peak in the afternoon and several secondary peaks during the night to the morning. Approximately 79.7% of initial convection clearly exhibits a dominant eastward movement, with a faster moving speed in spring. Convective storms frequently evolve among organizational modes during their life spans. Linear systems produce the most severe weather observations, in which convective lines with trailing stratiform rain are most prolific. Bow echoes are most efficient in producing severe weather events among all systems, despite their rare occurrences. In spring, lines with parallel stratiform rain are abundant producers of severe wind events, ranking the second highest probability. In summer, embedded lines produce the second largest proportion of intense rainfall events, whereas lines with leading stratiform rain are most efficient in generating extremely intense rainfall and thus pose a distinct flooding threat. Broken lines produce the largest proportion of severe weather events among cellular storms. In contrast, nonlinear systems possess the weakest capability to produce severe weather events.

Significance Statement

Under the influence of the East Asian summer monsoon, severe weather events produced by convective storms occur frequently in China, leading to serious natural disasters. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the morphologies of convective storms are helpful to improve our understanding and prediction of convective storms. However, fewer attempts have been made to examine the convective morphologies over southern China. We aim to reveal the general features of convective organizational modes (e.g., frequencies, durations, variations, etc.) and determine which particular types of severe weather are more or less likely to be associated with particular convective morphologies. These results are of benefit to local forecasters for better anticipating the storm types and issuing warnings for related hazardous weather.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Xinyong Shen, shenxy@nuist.edu.cn; Zhiying Ding, dingzhiying@nuist.edu.cn

Abstract

This study investigates the organizational modes of convective storms and associated severe weather in spring and summer (March–August) of 2015–19 over southern China. These storms are classified into three major organizational structures (cellular, linear, and nonlinear), including 10 dominant morphologies. In general, cellular systems are most frequent, followed by linear systems. Convective storms are common in spring, increasing markedly from April to June, and peak in June. Convective storm cases are usually longer lived in spring, while shorter lived in summer. They also present pronounced diurnal variations, with a primary peak in the afternoon and several secondary peaks during the night to the morning. Approximately 79.7% of initial convection clearly exhibits a dominant eastward movement, with a faster moving speed in spring. Convective storms frequently evolve among organizational modes during their life spans. Linear systems produce the most severe weather observations, in which convective lines with trailing stratiform rain are most prolific. Bow echoes are most efficient in producing severe weather events among all systems, despite their rare occurrences. In spring, lines with parallel stratiform rain are abundant producers of severe wind events, ranking the second highest probability. In summer, embedded lines produce the second largest proportion of intense rainfall events, whereas lines with leading stratiform rain are most efficient in generating extremely intense rainfall and thus pose a distinct flooding threat. Broken lines produce the largest proportion of severe weather events among cellular storms. In contrast, nonlinear systems possess the weakest capability to produce severe weather events.

Significance Statement

Under the influence of the East Asian summer monsoon, severe weather events produced by convective storms occur frequently in China, leading to serious natural disasters. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the morphologies of convective storms are helpful to improve our understanding and prediction of convective storms. However, fewer attempts have been made to examine the convective morphologies over southern China. We aim to reveal the general features of convective organizational modes (e.g., frequencies, durations, variations, etc.) and determine which particular types of severe weather are more or less likely to be associated with particular convective morphologies. These results are of benefit to local forecasters for better anticipating the storm types and issuing warnings for related hazardous weather.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Xinyong Shen, shenxy@nuist.edu.cn; Zhiying Ding, dingzhiying@nuist.edu.cn
Save