Using Machine Learning to Generate Storm-Scale Probabilistic Guidance of Severe Weather Hazards in the Warn-on-Forecast System

View More View Less
  • 1 School of Meteorology, and Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, and NOAA/OAR/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma
  • 2 Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies,
  • 3 NOAA/OAR/National Severe Storms Laboratory,
  • 4 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, and
  • 5 School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

A primary goal of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Warn-on-Forecast (WoF) project is to provide rapidly updating probabilistic guidance to human forecasters for short-term (e.g., 0-3 h) severe weather forecasts. Post-processing is required to maximize the usefulness of probabilistic guidance from an ensemble of convection-allowing model forecasts. Machine learning (ML) models have become popular methods for post-processing severe weather guidance since they can leverage numerous variables to discover useful patterns in complex datasets. In this study, we develop and evaluate a series of ML models to produce calibrated, probabilistic severe weather guidance from WoF System (WoFS) output.

Our dataset includes WoFS ensemble forecasts available every 5 minutes out to 150 min of lead time from the 2017-2019 NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed Spring Forecasting Experiments (81 dates). Using a novel ensemble storm track identification method, we extracted three sets of predictors from the WoFS forecasts: intra-storm state variables, near-storm environment variables, and morphological attributes of the ensemble storm tracks. We then trained random forests, gradient-boosted trees, and logistic regression algorithms to predict which WoFS 30-min ensemble storm tracks will overlap a tornado, severe hail, and/or severe wind report. To provide rigorous baselines against which to evaluate the skill of the ML models, we extracted the ensemble probabilities of hazard-relevant WoFS variables exceeding tuned thresholds from each ensemble storm track. The three ML algorithms discriminated well for all three hazards and produced more reliable probabilities than the baseline predictions. Overall, the results suggest that ML-based post-processing of dynamical ensemble output can improve short term, storm-scale severe weather probabilistic guidance.

Corresponding author: Montgomery L. Flora, monte.flora@noaa.gov

Abstract

A primary goal of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Warn-on-Forecast (WoF) project is to provide rapidly updating probabilistic guidance to human forecasters for short-term (e.g., 0-3 h) severe weather forecasts. Post-processing is required to maximize the usefulness of probabilistic guidance from an ensemble of convection-allowing model forecasts. Machine learning (ML) models have become popular methods for post-processing severe weather guidance since they can leverage numerous variables to discover useful patterns in complex datasets. In this study, we develop and evaluate a series of ML models to produce calibrated, probabilistic severe weather guidance from WoF System (WoFS) output.

Our dataset includes WoFS ensemble forecasts available every 5 minutes out to 150 min of lead time from the 2017-2019 NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed Spring Forecasting Experiments (81 dates). Using a novel ensemble storm track identification method, we extracted three sets of predictors from the WoFS forecasts: intra-storm state variables, near-storm environment variables, and morphological attributes of the ensemble storm tracks. We then trained random forests, gradient-boosted trees, and logistic regression algorithms to predict which WoFS 30-min ensemble storm tracks will overlap a tornado, severe hail, and/or severe wind report. To provide rigorous baselines against which to evaluate the skill of the ML models, we extracted the ensemble probabilities of hazard-relevant WoFS variables exceeding tuned thresholds from each ensemble storm track. The three ML algorithms discriminated well for all three hazards and produced more reliable probabilities than the baseline predictions. Overall, the results suggest that ML-based post-processing of dynamical ensemble output can improve short term, storm-scale severe weather probabilistic guidance.

Corresponding author: Montgomery L. Flora, monte.flora@noaa.gov
Save