• Argote, M. L., A. Amador, and C. Morales, 1985: Variación estacional de la estratificación en la región norte del Golfo de California. Memorias de la Reunión Anual 1985, J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi and J. F. Valdés-Galicia, Eds., Unión Geofísica Mexicana, 334–338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Argote, M. L., A. Amador, M. F. Lavín, and J. R. Hunter, 1995: Tidal dissipation and stratification in the Gulf of California. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 1610316118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Badan-Dangon, A., M. C. Hendershott, and M. F. Lavín, 1991: Underway Doppler current profiles in the Gulf of California. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 72 .209 and 217–218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beier, E., 1997: A numerical investigation of the annual variability in the Gulf of California. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 615632.

  • Beier, E., . 1999: Estudio de la marea y la circulación estacional en el Golfo de California mediante un modelo de dos capas heterogéneas. Ph. D. thesis, Department of Physical Oceanography, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, México, 64 pp. [Available from Biblioteca de CICESE, Ap. Postal 2732, Ensenada, Baja California, 22800, Mexico.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beier, E., and P. Ripa, 1999: Seasonal Gyres in the Northern Gulf of California. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 305311.

  • Berón-Vera, F. J., and P. Ripa, 2000: Three-dimensional aspects of the seasonal heat balance in the Gulf of California. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 1144111457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, N. A., 1988: Thermohaline circulation in the Gulf of California,. J. Geophys. Res., 93 , 49935020.

  • Carrillo, L. E., M. F. Lavín, and E. Palacios-Hernández, 2001: Seasonal evolution of the geostrophic circulation in the Northern Gulf of California. Estuary Coastal Shelf Sci., in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrillo-Bibriezca, L., 1996: Circulación geostrófica en la región norte del Golfo de California. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Physical Oceanography, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, México, 64 pp. [Available from Biblioteca de CICESE, Ap. Postal 2732, Ensenada, Baja California, 22800, Mexico.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castro, R., M. F. Lavín, and P. Ripa, 1994: Seasonal heat balance in the Gulf of California. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 32493261.

  • García-Córdova, J., C. F. Flores-Cabrera, and J. M. Robles Pacheco, 1996: Datos de CTD obtenidos en la Bahía de Todos Santos, B. C. Campaña BATOS 5. B/O Francisco de Ulloa. Data Rep. CTOFT9603, Comunicaciones Académicas, Serie Oceanografía Física, CICESE, 60 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Godin, G., 1988: Tides. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, 290 pp.

  • Lavín, M. F., and S. Organista, 1988: Surface heat flux in the Northern Gulf of California. J. Geophys. Res., 93 , 1403314038.

  • Lavín, M. F., R. Durazo, E. Palacios, M. L. Argote, and L. Carrillo, 1997: Lagrangian observations of the circulation in the northern Gulf of California. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 22982305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, P., J. McCreary, and B. Klinger, 1998: Meridional circulation and source waters of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 6284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martínez-Sepúlveda, M., 1994: Descripción de la profundidad de la capa mezclada superficial en el Golfo de California. B.S. thesis, Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Mexico, 48 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCreary, J. P., and P. K. Kundu, 1988: A numerical investigation of the Somali Current during the Southwest Monsoon. J. Mar. Res., 46 , 2558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCreary, J. P., H. S. Lee, and D. B. Enfield, 1989: The response of the coastal ocean to strong offshore winds: With application to circulation in the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo. J. Mar. Res., 47 , 81109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCreary, J. P., P. K. Fukamachi, and P. K. Kundu, 1991: A numerical investigation of jets and eddies near eastern ocean boundary. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , 25152534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Organista, S., 1987: Flujos de calor en el Alto Golfo de California. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Physical Oceanography, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, México, 142 pp. [Available from Biblioteca de CICESE, Ap. Postal 2732, Ensenada, Baja California, 22800, Mexico.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paden, C. A., C. D. Winant, and M. Abbot, 1991: Tidal and atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean in the Gulf of California, 1. Sea surface temperature variability. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , 1831718359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palacios-Hernández, E., M. F. Lavín-Peregrina, S. Sánchez-Mancilla, and V. Godínez-Sandoval, 1997: Campañas oceanográficas y datos de corrientímetros en la región norte del Golfo de California 1994–1996. CICESE Data Rep. CTOFT9701, Comunicaciones Académicas, Serie Oceanografía Física, CICESE, 91 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ripa, P., 1990: Seasonal circulation in the Gulf of California. Ann. Geophys., 8 , 559564.

  • Ripa, P., . 1997: Toward a physical explanation of the seasonal dynamics and thermodynamics of the Gulf of California. J. Phys. Oceangr, 27 , 597614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roemmich, D., 1983: Optimal estimation of hydrographic station data and derived fields. J. Phys. Oceangr., 13 , 15441549.

  • Simpson, J. H., 1981: The shelf sea fronts: Implications of their existence and behavior. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A302 , 531546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soto-Mardones, L., S. G. Marinone, and A. Parés-Sierra, 1999: Time and spatial variability of sea surface temperature in the Gulf of California. Cienc. Mar., 25 , 130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 201 44 3
PDF Downloads 52 20 2

The Effect of the Seasonal Variation of Stratification on the Circulation of the Northern Gulf of California

View More View Less
  • 1 Departamento de Oceanografía Física, CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico
  • | 2 Departamento de Oceanografía Física, CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, and College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
  • | 3 Departamento de Oceanografía Física, CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico
Restricted access

Abstract

Direct current measurements reveal that the circulation of the northern Gulf of California in the annual timescale consists of a cyclonic basinwide gyre (∼0.35 m s−1) that lasts from June to September (4 months), and an anticyclonic gyre (∼0.35 m s−1) lasting from November to April (6 months). The transitions between regimes take about three weeks each. The hypothesis that the difference in duration of the two circulation regimes is due to the seasonal variation of stratification of the water column is explored by simulations with a nonlinear two-layer numerical model of circulation and thermodynamics that includes vertical mixing, parameterized as an entrainment velocity. The model results agree remarkably well with the observations, considering its simplified vertical structure. In addition, the model predicts a net circulation consisting of an anticyclonic gyre of ∼0.05 m s−1, with a corresponding average concavity of the interface, and a two-layer exchange through the main channels of the archipelago.

Corresponding author address: Dr. M. F. Lavín, CICESE-Oceanography, P.O. Box 434844, San Diego, CA 92143-4844. Email: mlavin@cisese.mx

Abstract

Direct current measurements reveal that the circulation of the northern Gulf of California in the annual timescale consists of a cyclonic basinwide gyre (∼0.35 m s−1) that lasts from June to September (4 months), and an anticyclonic gyre (∼0.35 m s−1) lasting from November to April (6 months). The transitions between regimes take about three weeks each. The hypothesis that the difference in duration of the two circulation regimes is due to the seasonal variation of stratification of the water column is explored by simulations with a nonlinear two-layer numerical model of circulation and thermodynamics that includes vertical mixing, parameterized as an entrainment velocity. The model results agree remarkably well with the observations, considering its simplified vertical structure. In addition, the model predicts a net circulation consisting of an anticyclonic gyre of ∼0.05 m s−1, with a corresponding average concavity of the interface, and a two-layer exchange through the main channels of the archipelago.

Corresponding author address: Dr. M. F. Lavín, CICESE-Oceanography, P.O. Box 434844, San Diego, CA 92143-4844. Email: mlavin@cisese.mx

Save