• Borenäs, K., , and P. Lundberg, 1988: On the deep-water flow through the Faroe Bank Channel. J. Geophys. Res., 93C , 12811292.

  • Borenäs, K., , and P. Lundberg, 2004: The Faroe Bank Channel deep-water overflow. Deep-Sea Res. II, 51 , 335350.

  • Borenäs, K., , I. Lake, , and P. Lundberg, 2001: On the intermediate water masses of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 19041914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, L. H. N., 1955: Deep water movements in the North Atlantic as a link between climatic changes around Iceland and biological productivity of the English Channel and the Celtic Sea. J. Mar. Res., 14 , 347362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crease, J., 1965: The flow of Norwegian Sea water through the Faroe Bank Channel. Deep-Sea Res., 12 , 143150.

  • Dickson, R. R., , and J. Brown, 1994: The production of North Atlantic Deep Water: Sources, rates and pathways. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 1231912341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dooley, H., , and J. Meincke, 1981: Circulation and water masses in the Faroe Channel during Overflow-73. Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z., 34 , 4155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fristedt, T., , R. Hietala, , and P. Lundberg, 1999: Stability properties of a surface-water jet observed in the Denmark Strait. Tellus, 51A , 979989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hansen, B., , and S. Østerhus, 2000: North Atlantic–Nordic Seas exchanges. Progress in Oceanography, 45 , Pergamon,. 109208.

  • Hansen, B., , W. Turrell, , and S. Østerhus, 2001: Decrease of the overflow from the Nordic Seas into the Atlantic in the Faroe Bank Channel since 1950. Nature, 411 , 927930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hátún, H., , and T. McClimans, 2003: Monitoring the Faroe Current using altimetry and coastal sea-level data. Contin. Shelf Res, 23 , 859868.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Helfrich, K. R., , and L. J. Pratt, 2003: Rotating hydraulics and upstream basin circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 16511663.

  • Käse, R. H., , J. B. Girton, , and T. B. Sanford, 2003: Structure and variability of the Denmark Strait overflow: Model and observations. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3181, doi:10.1029/2002JC001548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lake, I., , K. Borenäs, , and P. Lundberg, 2005: Potential-vorticity characteristics of the Faroe Bank Channel deep-water overflow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 921935.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lundberg, P., 1993: Comments on “Cold outflow from the Faroe Bank Channel.”. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 12851291.

  • Mauritzen, C., 1996: Production of dense overflow waters feeding the North Atlantic across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Part 1: Evidence for a revised circulation scheme. Deep-Sea Res. I, 43 , 769806.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meincke, J., 1978: On the distribution of low salinity water around the Faroes. Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z., 31 , 5064.

  • Orvik, K. A., , and Ø Skagseth, 2003: The impact of the wind stress curl in the North Atlantic on the Atlantic inflow toward the Arctic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1884, doi:10.1029/2003GLO17932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orvik, K. A., , Ø Skagseth, , and M. Mork, 2001: Atlantic inflow to the Nordic Seas: Current structure and volume fluxes from moored current meters, VM-ADCP and Sea-Soar-CTD observations 1995–1999. Deep-Sea Res. I, 48 , 937957.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pistek, P., , and D. R. Johnson, 1992: Transport of the Norwegian Atlantic Current as determined from satellite altimetry. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19 , 13791382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ross, C. K., 1984: Temperature–salinity characteristics of the “overflow” water in the Denmark Strait during “OVERFLOW ’73.”. Rapp. P.-v. Réunion Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer, 185 , 111119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudels, B., , P. Eriksson, , H. Grönvall, , R. Hietala, , and J. Launiainen, 1999: Hydrographic observations in Denmark Strait in fall 1997, and their implications for the entrainment into the overflow plume. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 13251328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saetre, R., 1967: Report on the Norwegian investigation in the Faroe Channel 1964–1965. Tech. Rep. 38, NATO Subcommittee on Oceanographic Research, Bergen, Norway, 27 pp.

  • Samuel, P., , J. A. Johannessen, , and O. M. Johannessen, 1994: A study on the inflow of Atlantic water in the GIN Sea using GEOSAT altimeter data. The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment,Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 85, Amer. Geophys. Union, 95–108.

  • Saunders, P. M., 1990: Cold outflow from the Faroe Bank Channel. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20 , 2943.

  • Skagseth, Ø, 2004: Monthly to annual variability of the Norwegian Atlantic slope current: Connection between the northern North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea. Deep-Sea Res. I, 51 , 349366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 11 11 1
PDF Downloads 4 4 1

Seasonal Barotropic Modulation of the Deep-Water Overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Meteorology/Physical Oceanography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

As a joint Nordic project, an upward-looking ADCP has been maintained at the sill of the Faroe Bank Channel from 1995 onward. Records from a period in 1998 with three current meters deployed across the channel were used to demonstrate that the Faroe Bank Channel deep-water transport from the Norwegian Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean proper can be reasonably well estimated from one centrally located ADCP. The long-term average of this transport over the period 1995–2001 was found to be 2.1 Sv (Sv ≡ 106 m−3 s−1). The transport record demonstrates a pronounced seasonality. Satellite altimetry shows that this is caused by the northbound Atlantic surface water inflow giving rise to a barotropic modulation of the deep-water flow through the Faroe–Shetland Channel and the southern reaches of the Norwegian Sea.

Corresponding author address: Iréne Lake, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SE-60176 Norrköping, Sweden. Email: irene.lake@smhi.se

Abstract

As a joint Nordic project, an upward-looking ADCP has been maintained at the sill of the Faroe Bank Channel from 1995 onward. Records from a period in 1998 with three current meters deployed across the channel were used to demonstrate that the Faroe Bank Channel deep-water transport from the Norwegian Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean proper can be reasonably well estimated from one centrally located ADCP. The long-term average of this transport over the period 1995–2001 was found to be 2.1 Sv (Sv ≡ 106 m−3 s−1). The transport record demonstrates a pronounced seasonality. Satellite altimetry shows that this is caused by the northbound Atlantic surface water inflow giving rise to a barotropic modulation of the deep-water flow through the Faroe–Shetland Channel and the southern reaches of the Norwegian Sea.

Corresponding author address: Iréne Lake, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SE-60176 Norrköping, Sweden. Email: irene.lake@smhi.se

Save