• Bretherton, F. P., R. E. Davis, and C. B. Fandry, 1976: A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiment applied to MODE-73. Deep-Sea Res., 23 , 559582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carter, E. F., and A. R. Robinson, 1987: Analysis methods for the estimation of oceanic fields. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 4 , 4974.

  • Cochrane, J. D., 1958: The frequency distribution of water characteristics in the Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 5 , 111127.

  • Demirov, E., and N. Pinardi, 2002: Simulation of the Mediterranean Sea circulation from 1979 to 1993: Part I. The internal variability. J. Mar. Syst., 33–34 , 2350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gertman, I. F., I. M. Ovchinnikov, and Y. I. Popov, 1990: Deep water formation in the Aegean Sea. Proc. 32d CIESM Conference, Perpignan, France, CIESM, 164 pp.

  • Hecht, A., and I. Gertman, 2001: Physical features of the eastern Mediterranean resulting from the integration of POEM data with Russian Mediterranean cruises. Deep-Sea Res. I, 48 , 18471876.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hopkins, T. S., 1978: Physical processes in the Mediterranean basins. Estuarine Transport Processes, B. Kjerfve, Ed., University of South Carolina Press, 269–309.

  • Josey, S. A., 2003: Changes in the heat and freshwater forcing of the eastern Mediterranean and their influence on deep water formation. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3237, doi:10.1029/2003JC001778.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, B., W. Roether, B. B. Manca, D. Bregant, V. Beitzel, V. Kovacevic, and A. Luchetta, 1999: The large deep water transient in the eastern Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Res. I, 46 , 371414.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korres, G., and A. Lascaratos, 2003: An eddy resolving model of the Aegean and Levantine basins for the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project (MFSPP): Implementation and climatological runs. Ann. Geophys., 21 , (MFSPP—Part I Special Issue). 205220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kourafalou, V. H., and K. Barbopoulos, 2003: Height resolution simulations on the North Aegean Sea seasonal circulation. Ann. Geophys., 21 , (MFSPP—Part I Special Issue). 251265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kourafalou, V., D. Olson, W. Johns, H. Kontoyiannis, and V. Zervakis, 2003: Structure of flows in the Northern Aegean Sea from a pilot drifter array. Extended Abstracts, EGS-AGU-EUG 2003 General Assembly, Vol. 5, Nice, France. [Available online at http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/07767/EAE03-J-07767.pdf.].

  • Lascaratos, A., W. Roether, K. Nittis, and B. Klein, 1999: Recent changes in deep water formation and spreading in the Mediterranean Sea: A review. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 44, Pergamon, 5–36.

  • Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., and A. Hecht, 1988: Large scale properties of the eastern Mediterranean: A review. Oceanol. Acta, 11 , 323335.

  • Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., B. B. Manca, M. Ribera d’Alcala, A. Theocharis, S. Brenner, G. Budillon, and E. Ozsoy, 1999: The eastern Mediterranean in the 80s and in the 90s: The big transition in the intermediate and deep circulations. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 29 , 365395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mamaev, O. I., 1975: Temperature–Salinity Analysis of World Ocean Waters. Elsevier Oceanography Series, Vol. 11, Elsevier Scientific, 374 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montgomery, R. B., 1958: Water characteristics of Atlantic Ocean and of World Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 5 , 134148.

  • Nittis, K., N. Pinardi, and A. Lascaratos, 1993: Characteristics of the summer 1987 flow field in the Ionian Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , C6. 1017110184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nittis, K., A. Lascaratos, and A. Theocharis, 2003: Dense water formation in the Aegean Sea: Numerical simulations during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .8120, doi:10.1029/2002JC001352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ovchinnikov, I. M., A. Plakhin, L. V. Moskalenko, K. V. Neglyad, A. S. Osadchii, A. F. Fedoseev, V. G. Krivosheya, and K. V. Voitova, 1976: Gidrologiya Sredizemnogo Moria. Gidrometeoizdat, 375 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pollak, M. J., 1958: Frequency distribution of potential temperature and salinities in the Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 5 , 128133.

  • Popov, Y. I., 1991: Effect of the structure of the South Aegean water mass on structure and dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (the 38th cruise of the R/V Yakov Gakkel in the eastern Mediterranean, August 20–November 6, 1990). Oceanology, 31 , 794796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roether, W., B. B. Manca, B. Klein, D. Bregant, D. Georgopoulos, V. Beitzel, V. Kovacevic, and A. Luchetta, 1996: Recent changes in the eastern Mediterranean deep waters. Science, 271 , 333335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schlitzer, R., W. Roether, H. Oster, H. Junghans, M. Hausmann, H. Johannsen, and A. Michelato, 1991: Chlorofluoromenthane and oxygen in the eastern Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Res., 38 , 15311551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Theocharis, A., and D. Georgopoulos, 1993: Dense water formation over the Samothraki and Lemnos Plateaux in the north Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean Sea). Cont. Shelf Res., 13 , 919939.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Theocharis, A., E. Balopoulos, S. Kioroglou, H. Kontoyiannis, and A. Iona, 1999a: A synthesis of the circulation and hydrography of the south Aegean Sea and the straits of the Cretan Arc. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 44, Pergamon, 469–509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Theocharis, A., K. Nittis, H. Kontoyiannis, E. Papageorgiou, and E. Balopoulos, 1999b: Climatic changes in the Aegean Sea influence the eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (1986-1997). Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 16171620.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Unluata, U., T. Oguz, M. A. Latif, and E. Oszoy, 1990: On the physical oceanography of the Turkish Straits. The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, L. J. Pratt, Ed., Kluwer, 25–60.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Worthington, L. V., 1981: The water masses of the World Ocean: Some results of a fine scale census. Evolution of Oceanography, B. A. Warren, and G. Wunsch, Eds., The MIT Press, 42–69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, P., K. Haines, and N. Pinardi, 2000: Toward an understanding of deep-water renewal in the eastern Mediterranean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 443458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zervakis, V., and D. Georgopoulos, 2002: Hydrology and circulation in the north Aegean (eastern Mediterranean) throughout 1997 and 1998. Med. Mar. Sci., 3 , 519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zervakis, V., D. Georgopoulos, and P. G. Drakopoulos, 2000: The role of the north Aegean in triggering the recent eastern Mediterranean climatic changes. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 2610326116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zodiatis, G., 1991a: The hydrological conditions and the circulation in the Cretan Sea during late summer 1987. Ann. Geophys., 9 , 233238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zodiatis, G., 1991b: Water masses and deep convection in the Cretan Sea during late winter 1987. Ann. Geophys., 9 , 367376.

  • Zodiatis, G., 1994: Advection of the Black Sea waters in the north Aegean Sea. Global Atmos. Ocean Syst., 2 , 4160.

  • Zodiatis, G., and E. Balopoulos, 1993: Structure and characteristics of fronts in the north Aegean Sea. Boll. Oceanol. Teor. Appl., 11 , 113124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 242 165 13
PDF Downloads 229 158 4

Aegean Sea Water Masses during the Early Stages of the Eastern Mediterranean Climatic Transient (1988–90)

View More View Less
  • 1 Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel
  • | 2 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy
  • | 3 Ukrainian Scientific Center of Sea Ecology, Odessa, Ukraine
  • | 4 Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

The Aegean water masses and circulation structure are studied via two large-scale surveys performed during the late winters of 1988 and 1990 by the R/V Yakov Gakkel of the former Soviet Union. The analysis of these data sheds light on the mechanisms of water mass formation in the Aegean Sea that triggered the outflow of Cretan Deep Water (CDW) from the Cretan Sea into the abyssal basins of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (the so-called Eastern Mediterranean Transient). It is found that the central Aegean Basin is the site of the formation of Aegean Intermediate Water, which slides southward and, depending on their density, renews either the intermediate or the deep water of the Cretan Sea. During the winter of 1988, the Cretan Sea waters were renewed mainly at intermediate levels, while during the winter of 1990 it was mainly the volume of CDW that increased. This Aegean water mass redistribution and formation process in 1990 differed from that in 1988 in two major aspects: (i) during the winter of 1990 the position of the front between the Black Sea Water and the Levantine Surface Water was displaced farther north than during the winter of 1988 and (ii) heavier waters were formed in 1990 as a result of enhanced lateral advection of salty Levantine Surface Water that enriched the intermediate waters with salt. In 1990 the 29.2 isopycnal rose to the surface of the central basin and a large volume of CDW filled the Cretan Basin. It is found that, already in 1988, the 29.2 isopycnal surface, which we assume is the lowest density of the CDW, was shallower than the Kassos Strait sill and thus CDW egressed into the Eastern Mediterranean.

Corresponding author address: Isaac Gertman, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Tel Shikmona, P.O.B. 8030, Haifa 31080, Israel. Email: isaac@ocean.org.il

Abstract

The Aegean water masses and circulation structure are studied via two large-scale surveys performed during the late winters of 1988 and 1990 by the R/V Yakov Gakkel of the former Soviet Union. The analysis of these data sheds light on the mechanisms of water mass formation in the Aegean Sea that triggered the outflow of Cretan Deep Water (CDW) from the Cretan Sea into the abyssal basins of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (the so-called Eastern Mediterranean Transient). It is found that the central Aegean Basin is the site of the formation of Aegean Intermediate Water, which slides southward and, depending on their density, renews either the intermediate or the deep water of the Cretan Sea. During the winter of 1988, the Cretan Sea waters were renewed mainly at intermediate levels, while during the winter of 1990 it was mainly the volume of CDW that increased. This Aegean water mass redistribution and formation process in 1990 differed from that in 1988 in two major aspects: (i) during the winter of 1990 the position of the front between the Black Sea Water and the Levantine Surface Water was displaced farther north than during the winter of 1988 and (ii) heavier waters were formed in 1990 as a result of enhanced lateral advection of salty Levantine Surface Water that enriched the intermediate waters with salt. In 1990 the 29.2 isopycnal rose to the surface of the central basin and a large volume of CDW filled the Cretan Basin. It is found that, already in 1988, the 29.2 isopycnal surface, which we assume is the lowest density of the CDW, was shallower than the Kassos Strait sill and thus CDW egressed into the Eastern Mediterranean.

Corresponding author address: Isaac Gertman, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Tel Shikmona, P.O.B. 8030, Haifa 31080, Israel. Email: isaac@ocean.org.il

Save