The Effect of Wind–Wave–Current Interaction on Air–Sea Momentum Fluxes and Ocean Response in Tropical Cyclones

Yalin Fan Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island

Search for other papers by Yalin Fan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Isaac Ginis Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island

Search for other papers by Isaac Ginis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Tetsu Hara Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island

Search for other papers by Tetsu Hara in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

In this paper, the wind–wave–current interaction mechanisms in tropical cyclones and their effect on the surface wave and ocean responses are investigated through a set of numerical experiments. The key element of the authors’ modeling approach is the air–sea interface model, which consists of a wave boundary layer model and an air–sea momentum flux budget model. The results show that the time and spatial variations in the surface wave field, as well as the wave–current interaction, significantly reduce momentum flux into the currents in the right rear quadrant of the hurricane. The reduction of the momentum flux into the ocean consequently reduces the magnitude of the subsurface current and sea surface temperature cooling to the right of the hurricane track and the rate of upwelling/downwelling in the thermocline. During wind–wave–current interaction, the momentum flux into the ocean is mainly affected by reducing the wind speed relative to currents, whereas the wave field is mostly affected by refraction due to the spatially varying currents. In the area where the current is strongly and roughly aligned with wave propagation direction, the wave spectrum of longer waves is reduced, the peak frequency is shifted to a higher frequency, and the angular distribution of the wave energy is widened.

Corresponding author address: Yalin Fan, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882. Email: yalin@gso.uri.edu

Abstract

In this paper, the wind–wave–current interaction mechanisms in tropical cyclones and their effect on the surface wave and ocean responses are investigated through a set of numerical experiments. The key element of the authors’ modeling approach is the air–sea interface model, which consists of a wave boundary layer model and an air–sea momentum flux budget model. The results show that the time and spatial variations in the surface wave field, as well as the wave–current interaction, significantly reduce momentum flux into the currents in the right rear quadrant of the hurricane. The reduction of the momentum flux into the ocean consequently reduces the magnitude of the subsurface current and sea surface temperature cooling to the right of the hurricane track and the rate of upwelling/downwelling in the thermocline. During wind–wave–current interaction, the momentum flux into the ocean is mainly affected by reducing the wind speed relative to currents, whereas the wave field is mostly affected by refraction due to the spatially varying currents. In the area where the current is strongly and roughly aligned with wave propagation direction, the wave spectrum of longer waves is reduced, the peak frequency is shifted to a higher frequency, and the angular distribution of the wave energy is widened.

Corresponding author address: Yalin Fan, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882. Email: yalin@gso.uri.edu

Save
  • Bao, J-W., J. M. Wilczak, J-K. Choi, and L. H. Kantha, 2000: Numerical simulations of air–sea interaction under high-wind conditions using a coupled model: A study of hurricane development. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 21902210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, M. A., and I. Ginis, 2000: Real-case simulations of hurricane–ocean interaction using a high-resolution coupled model: Effects on hurricane intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 917946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, M. A., I. Ginis, and Y. Kurihara, 1993: Numerical simulations of tropical cyclone–ocean interaction with a high-resolution coupled model. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , 2324523263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, M. A., I. Ginis, R. Tuleya, B. Thomas, and T. Marchok, 2007: The operational GFDL coupled hurricane–ocean prediction system and a summary of its performance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 39653989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, P. G., and Coauthors, 2007: Air–sea exchange in hurricanes: Synthesis of observations from the Coupled Boundary Layer Air–Sea Transfer experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88 , 357374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumberg, A. F., and G. L. Mellor, 1987: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model. Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, N. S. Heaps, Ed., Amer. Geophys. Union, 1–16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canuto, V. M., A. Howard, Y. Cheng, and M. S. Dubovikov, 2001: Ocean turbulence. Part I: One-point closure model—Momentum and heat vertical diffusivities. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 14131426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, S. S., J. F. Price, W. Zhao, M. A. Donelan, and E. J. Walsh, 2007: The CBLAST-Hurricane program and the next-generation fully coupled atmosphere–wave–ocean models for hurricane research and prediction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88 , 311317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cione, J. J., and E. W. Uhlhorn, 2003: Sea surface temperature variability in hurricanes: Implications with respect to intensity change. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 17831796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drennan, W. M., H. C. Graber, D. Hauser, and C. Quentin, 2003: On the wave age dependence of wind stress over pure wind seas. J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 8062. doi:10.1029/2000JC000715.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fan, Y., W. S. Brown, and Z. Yu, 2005: Model simulations of the Gulf of Maine response to storm forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 110 , C04010. doi:10.1029/2004JC002479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ginis, I., 2002: Tropical cyclone–ocean interactions. Atmosphere–Ocean Interactions, W. Perrie, Ed., Vol. 33, Advances in Fluid Mechanics, WIT Press, 83–114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ginis, I., and K. Zh Dikinov, 1989: Modeling of the Typhoon Virginia (1978) forcing on the ocean. Sov. Meteor. Hydrol., 7 , 5360.

  • Ginis, I., K. Zh Dikinov, and A. P. Khain, 1989: A three-dimensional model of the atmosphere and the ocean in the zone of a typhoon. Dokl. Akad. Nauk USSR, 307 , 333337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ginis, I., W. Shen, and M. A. Bender, 1999: Performance evaluation of the GFDL coupled hurricane–ocean prediction system in the Atlantic basin. Preprints, 23rd Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 607–610.

  • Hara, T., and S. E. Belcher, 2002: Wind forcing in the equilibrium range of wind-wave spectra. J. Fluid Mech., 470 , 223245.

  • Hara, T., and S. E. Belcher, 2004: Wind profile and drag coefficient over mature ocean surface wave spectra. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 23452358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holland, G. J., 1980: An analytic model of the wind and pressure profiles in hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108 , 12121218.

  • Jacob, S. D., L. K. Shay, A. J. Mariano, and P. G. Black, 2000: The 3D mixed layer response to Hurricane Gilbert. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 14071429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacob, S. D., N. Shay, and G. Halliwell, 2005: Evaluation of upper ocean mixing parameterizations. Joint Hurricane Testbed semi-annual Progress Report, 23 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenyon, K. E., and D. Sheres, 2006: Wave force on an ocean current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36 , 212221.

  • Khain, A. P., and I. Ginis, 1991: The mutual response of a moving tropical cyclone and the ocean. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 64 , 125141.

  • Large, W. G., J. C. McWilliams, and S. C. Doney, 1994: Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys., 32 , 363403.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mellor, G. L., and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 20 , 851875.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moon, I-J., I. Ginis, T. Hara, H. Tolman, C. W. Wright, and E. J. Walsh, 2003: Numerical simulation of sea surface directional wave spectra under hurricane wind forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 16801706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moon, I-J., T. Hara, I. Ginis, S. E. Belcher, and H. Tolman, 2004a: Effect of surface waves on air–sea momentum exchange. Part I: Effect of mature and growing seas. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 23212333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moon, I-J., I. Ginis, and T. Hara, 2004b: Effect of surface waves on air–sea momentum exchange. Part II: Behavior of drag coefficient under tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 23342348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morey, S. L., M. A. Bourassa, D. S. Dukhovskoy, and J. J. O’Brien, 2006: Modeling studies of the upper ocean response to a tropical cyclone. Ocean Dyn., 56 , 594606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Price, J. F., 1981: Upper ocean response to a hurricane. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11 , 153175.

  • Ren, X., and W. Perrie, 2006: Air–sea interaction of Typhoon Sinlaku (2002) simulated by the Canadian MC2 model. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 23 , 521530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schade, L. R., and K. A. Emanuel, 1999: The ocean’s effect on the intensity of tropical cyclones: Results from a simple coupled atmosphere–ocean model. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 642651.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Surgi, N., 2007: Advanced hurricane prediction at NCEP’s Environmental Model Center: The operational implementation of the HWRF. 61st Interdepartmental Hurricane Conf., New Orleans, LA, Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (OFCM). [Available online at http://www.ofcm.noaa.gov/ihc07/Presentations/s5-01Surgi-IHC-'07.PPT.].

  • Tolman, H. L., 2002: User manual and system documentation of WAVEWATCH-III version 2.22. NOAA/NWS/NCEP/MMAB Tech. Note 222, 133 pp.

  • Tolman, H. L., S. H. Hasselmann, H. Graber, R. E. Jensen, and L. Cavaleri, 1996: Application to the open ocean. Dynamics and Modelling of Ocean Waves, G. J. Komen et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 355–359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wright, C. W., and Coauthors, 2001: Hurricane directional wave spectrum spatial variation in the open ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 24722488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1421 393 20
PDF Downloads 1205 261 29