• Allender, J., T. Audunson, S. F. Barstow, S. Bjerken, H. E. Krogstad, P. Steinbakke, L. Vardel, and L. E. Borgman, 1989: The WADIC project: A comprehensive field evaluation of directional wave instrumentation. Ocean Eng., 16 , 505536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ataktürk, S. S., and K. B. Katsaros, 1999: Wind stress and surface waves observed on Lake Washington. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 633650.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Banner, M. L., 1990: Equilibrium spectra of wind waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20 , 966984.

  • Capon, J., 1969: High-resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis. Proc. IEEE, 57 , 14081418.

  • Cavaleri, L., and M. Sclavo, 1998: Characteristics of quadrant and octant advection schemes in wave models. Coastal Eng., 34 , 221242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • COST714-WG3, 2005: Measuring and Analysing the Directional Spectrum of Ocean Waves. D. Hauser et al., Eds., Office for Official Publication of the European Communities, 460 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donelan, M. A., 1980: Similarity theory applied to the forecasting of wave heights, periods and directions. Proc. Canadian Coastal Conf., National Research Council of Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada, 47–61.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donelan, M. A., J. Hamilton, and W. H. Hui, 1985: Directional spectra of wind-generated waves. Philos. Trans. Roy Soc. London, A315 , 509562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drennan, W. M., M. A. Donelan, N. Madsen, K. B. Katsaros, E. A. Terray, and C. N. Flagg, 1994: Directional wave spectra from a Swath ship at sea. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 11 , 11091116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ewans, K. C., 1998: Observations of the directional spectrum of fetch-limited waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 495512.

  • Günter, H., W. Rosenthal, J. G. Briz, and J. E. de Luis, 1989: Wave growth in slanting fetch conditions. Proc. Second Int. Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 44–53.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hasselmann, D. E., M. Dunckel, and J. A. Ewing, 1980: Directional wave spectra observed during JONSWAP 1973. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10 , 12641280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hasselmann, K., and Coauthors, 1973: Measurements of wind-wave growth and swell decay during the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP). Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z., 12 , 195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hasselmann, K., D. B. Ross, P. Müller, and W. Sell, 1976: A parametric wave prediction model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6 , 200228.

  • Hasselmann, S., and K. Hasselmann, 1981: A Symmetrical Method of Computing the Nonlinear Transfer in a Gravity Wave Spectrum. Hamburger Geophysikalische Einzelschriften Reihe A Helf Series, Vol. 52, Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, 163 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hasselmann, S., and K. Hasselmann, 1985: The wave model EXACT-NL. Ocean Wave Modeling, SWAMP Group, Eds., Plenum, 249–351.

  • Hasselmann, S., K. Hasselmann, J. H. Allender, and T. P. Barnett, 1985: Computations and parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfer in a gravity wave spectrum. Part II: Parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfer for application in wave models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15 , 13781391.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holthuijsen, L. H., 1983: Observations of the directional distribution of ocean-wave energy in fetch-limited conditions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 , 191207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janssen, P. A. E. M., K. Hasselmann, S. Hasselmann, and G. J. Komen, 1994: Numerical modelling of wave evolution. Dynamics and Modelling of Ocean Waves, G. J. Komen et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 204–257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahma, K. K., 1981: A study of the growth of the wave spectrum with fetch. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11 , 15031515.

  • Kahma, K. K., and C. J. Calkoen, 1992: Reconciling discrepancies in the observed growth of wind-generated waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22 , 13891405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahma, K. K., and H. Pettersson, 1994: Wave growth in a narrow fetch geometry. Global Atmos. Ocean Syst., 2 , 253263.

  • Källén, E., 1996: Hirlam documentation manual: System 2.5. Tech. Rep., Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden, 240 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Komen, G. J., L. Cavaleri, M. Donelan, K. Hasselmann, S. Hasselmann, and P. A. E. M. Janssen, 1994: Dynamics and Modelling of Ocean Waves. Cambridge University Press, 532 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krogstad, H. E., and S. F. Barstow, 1999: Directional distributions in ocean wave spectra. Proc. Ninth Int. Society of Offshore and Polar Eng. Conf., Brest, France, 79–86.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuik, A. J., G. P. van Vledder, and L. H. Holthuijsen, 1988: A method for the routine analysis of pitch-and-roll buoy wave data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18 , 10201034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lavrenov, I. V., and J. R. A. Onvlee, 1993: On the effects of limited spectral resolution in third-generation wave models. Tech. Rep. TR-156, Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, Netherlands, 23 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Longuet-Higgins, M. S., D. E. Cartwright, and N. D. Smith, 1963: Observations of the directional spectrum of sea waves using the motion of a floating buoy. Ocean Wave Spectra: Proceedings of a Conference, Prentice Hall, 111–132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monbaliu, J., R. Padilla-Hernández, J. C. Hargreaves, J. C. Carretero Albiach, W. Luo, M. Sclavo, and H. Günther, 2000: The spectral wave model, WAM, adapted for applications with high spatial resolution. Coastal Eng., 41 , 4162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pettersson, H., 2001: Aaltohavaintoja Suomenlahdelta 1990–1994, suuntamittauksia (Directional wave statistics from the Gulf of Finland). Meri, 44 , 137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pettersson, H., 2004: Wave growth in a narrow bay. Ph.D. thesis, University of Helsinki, 112 pp.

  • Pierson Jr., W. J., and L. Moskowitz, 1964: A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S.A. Kitaigorodskii. J. Geophys. Res., 69 , 51815190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saville Jr., T., 1954: The effect of fetch width on wave generation. Beach Erosion Board Tech. Memo. 70, 9 pp.

  • Seymour, R. J., 1977: Estimating wave generation on restricted fetches. J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Div., 103 , 251264.

  • Tolman, H. L., 1992: Effects of numerics on the physics in a third-generation wind-wave model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22 , 10951111.

  • van Vledder, G. P., 1990: Directional response of wind waves to turning winds. Ph. D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 252 pp.

  • van Vledder, G. P., and L. H. Holthuijsen, 1993: The directional response of ocean waves to turning winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 177192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Vledder, G. P., T. H. C. Herbers, R. E. Jensen, D. T. Resio, and B. Tracy, 2000: Modelling of non-linear quadruplet wave-wave interactions in operational wave models. Proc. 27th Int. Conf. on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, Sydney, Australia, 797–811.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walsh, E. J., D. W. Hankcock III, D. E. Hines, R. N. Swift, and J. F. Scott, 1989: An observation of the directional wave spectrum evolution from shoreline to fully developed. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19 , 670690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WAMDI Group, 1988: The WAM model—A third-generation ocean wave prediction model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18 , 17751810.

  • Young, I. R., S. Hasselmann, and K. Hasselmann, 1987: Computations of the response of a wave spectrum to a sudden change in wind direction. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17 , 13171338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 263 141 0
PDF Downloads 201 71 0

Wave Directions in a Narrow Bay

View More View Less
  • 1 Marine Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Restricted access

Abstract

In slanting fetch conditions the direction of actively growing waves is strongly controlled by the fetch geometry. The effect was found to be pronounced in the long and narrow Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea, where it significantly modifies the directional wave climate. Three models with different assumptions on the directional coupling between the wave components were used to analyze the physics responsible for the directional behavior of the waves in the gulf. The directionally decoupled model produced the direction at the spectral peak correctly when the slanting fetch geometry was narrow but gave a weaker steering than observed when the fetch geometry was broader. The method of Donelan estimated well the direction at the spectral peak in well-defined slanting fetch conditions, but overestimated the longer fetch components during wave growth from a more complex shoreline. Neither the decoupled nor the Donelan model reproduced the observed shifting of direction with the frequency. The performance of the third-generation spectral wave model (WAM) in estimating the wave directions was strongly dependent on the grid resolution of the model. The dominant wave directions were estimated satisfactorily when the grid-step size was dropped to 5 km in the gulf, which is 70 km in its narrowest part. A mechanism based on the weakly nonlinear interactions is proposed to explain the strong steering effect in slanting fetch conditions.

Corresponding author address: Heidi Pettersson, Marine Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland. Email: heidi.pettersson@fmi.fi

Abstract

In slanting fetch conditions the direction of actively growing waves is strongly controlled by the fetch geometry. The effect was found to be pronounced in the long and narrow Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea, where it significantly modifies the directional wave climate. Three models with different assumptions on the directional coupling between the wave components were used to analyze the physics responsible for the directional behavior of the waves in the gulf. The directionally decoupled model produced the direction at the spectral peak correctly when the slanting fetch geometry was narrow but gave a weaker steering than observed when the fetch geometry was broader. The method of Donelan estimated well the direction at the spectral peak in well-defined slanting fetch conditions, but overestimated the longer fetch components during wave growth from a more complex shoreline. Neither the decoupled nor the Donelan model reproduced the observed shifting of direction with the frequency. The performance of the third-generation spectral wave model (WAM) in estimating the wave directions was strongly dependent on the grid resolution of the model. The dominant wave directions were estimated satisfactorily when the grid-step size was dropped to 5 km in the gulf, which is 70 km in its narrowest part. A mechanism based on the weakly nonlinear interactions is proposed to explain the strong steering effect in slanting fetch conditions.

Corresponding author address: Heidi Pettersson, Marine Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland. Email: heidi.pettersson@fmi.fi

Save