• Abdelrahman, S. M., and F. A. Ahmad, 1995: Note on the residual currents in the Arabian Gulf. Cont. Shelf Res., 15 , 10151022.

  • Atlas, R., R. N. Hoffman, J. Ardizzone, S. M. Leidner, and J. C. Jusem, 2009: Development of a new cross-calibrated, multi-platform (CCMP) ocean surface wind product. Preprints, 13th Conf. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface (IOAS-AOLS), Phoenix, AZ, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4B.1. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/145957.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Azam, M. H., W. Elshorbagy, T. Ichikawa, T. Terasawa, and K. Taguchi, 2006: 3D model application to study residual flow in the Arabian Gulf. J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Eng., 132 , 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blain, C. A., 1998: Barotropic and tidal residual circulation in the Arabian Gulf. Proc. Fifth Int. Conf. on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, Alexandria, VA, American Society of Civil Engineers, 166–180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blain, C. A., 2000: Modeling three-dimensional thermohaline-driven circulation in the Arabian Gulf. Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, Reston, VA, American Society of Civil Engineers, 74–93.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bleck, R., G. R. Halliwell, A. J. Wallcraft, S. Carroll, K. Kelly, and K. Rushing, 2002: HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) user’s manual: Details of the numerical code. HYCOM, 177 pp. [Available online at http://www.hycom.org/attachments/063_hycom_users_manual.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carnes, M. R., 2009: Description and evaluation of GDEM-V3.0. NRL Rep. NRL/MR/7330–09-9165, 24 pp.

  • Chao, S-Y., T. W. Kao, and K. R. Al-Hajri, 1992: A numerical investigation of circulation in the Arabian Gulf. J. Geophys. Res., 97 , 1121911236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elshorbagy, W., M. H. Azam, and K. Taguchi, 2006: Hydrodynamic characterization and modeling of the Arabian Gulf. J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Eng., 132 , 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horton, C., M. Clifford, D. Cole, J. Schmitz, and L. Kantha, 1992: Operational modeling: Semienclosed basin modeling at the Naval Oceanographic Office. Oceanography, 5 , 6972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunter, J. R., 1983: Aspects of the dynamics of the residual circulation of the Arabian Gulf. Coastal Oceanography, H. G. Gade, A. Edwards, and H. Svendsen, Eds., Plenum, 31–42.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kämpf, J., and M. Sadrinasab, 2006: The circulation of the Persian Gulf: A numerical study. Ocean Sci., 2 , 115.

  • Kara, A. B., A. J. Wallcraft, and H. E. Hurlburt, 2007: A correction for land contamination of atmospheric variables near land–sea boundaries. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37 , 803818.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lardner, R. W., and S. K. Das, 1991: On the computation of flows driven by density gradient: Residual currents in the Arabian Gulf. Appl. Math. Model., 15 , 282294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lardner, R. W., W. J. Lehr, R. J. Fraga, and M. A. Sarhan, 1987: Residual currents in the Arabian Gulf I: Density driven flow. Arabian J. Sci. Eng., 12 , 341354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lardner, R. W., W. J. Lehr, R. J. Fraga, and M. A. Sarhan, 1988: A model of residual currents and pollutant transport in the Arabian Gulf. Appl. Math. Model., 12 , 379390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lardner, R. W., A. H. Al-Rabeh, N. Gunay, and H. M. Cekirge, 1989: Implementation of the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the Arabian Gulf. Adv. Water Res., 12 , 28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lardner, R. W., A. H. Al-Rabeh, N. Gunay, H. Hossain, R. M. Reynolds, and W. J. Lehr, 1993: Computation of the residual flow in the Gulf using the Mt Mitchell data and the KFUPM/RI hydrodynamical models. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 27 , 6170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, R. M., 1993: Physical oceanography of the Gulf, Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman—Results from the Mt. Mitchell expedition. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 27 , 3559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Song, Y., S. K. Das, and R. W. Lardner, 1994: Computation of density driven flows using the spectral method: Application to the Arabian Gulf. Cont. Shelf Res., 14 , 10391052.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Teague, W. J., M. J. Carron, and P. J. Hogan, 1990: A comparison between the Generalized Digital Environmental Model and Levitus climatologies. J. Geophys. Res., 95 , 71677183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thoppil, P. G., and P. J. Hogan, 2009: On the mechanisms of episodic salinity outflow events in the Strait of Hormuz. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39 , 13401360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, L., and R. A. Weller, 2007: Objectively analyzed air–sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88 , 527539.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 501 270 18
PDF Downloads 475 256 25

A Modeling Study of Circulation and Eddies in the Persian Gulf

View More View Less
  • 1 Open Ocean Processes and Prediction Section, Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi
Restricted access

Abstract

The circulation and mesoscale eddies in the Persian Gulf are investigated using results from a high-resolution (∼1 km) Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The circulation in the Persian Gulf is composed of two spatial scales: basin scale and mesoscale. The progression of a cyclonic circulation cell dominates the basin-scale circulation in the eastern half of the gulf (52°–55°E) during March–July. This is primarily the consequence of density-driven outflow–inflow through the Strait of Hormuz and strong stratification. A northwestward-flowing Iranian Coastal Current (ICC; 30–40 cm s−1) between the Strait of Hormuz and north of Qatar (∼52°E) forms the northern flank of the cell. Between July and August the ICC becomes unstable because of the baroclinic instability mechanism by releasing the potential energy stored in the cross-shelf density gradient. As a result, the meanders in the ICC evolve into a series of mesoscale eddies, which is denoted as the Iranian coastal eddies (ICE). The ICE have a diameter of about 115–130 km and extend vertically over most of the water column. Three cyclonic eddies produced by the model during August–September 2005 compared quite well with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) SST and chlorophyll-a observations. The remnants of ICE are seen until November, after which they dissipate as the winter cooling causes the thermocline to collapse.

Corresponding author address: Prasad Thoppil, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7323, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529. Email: thoppil@nrlssc.navy.mil

Abstract

The circulation and mesoscale eddies in the Persian Gulf are investigated using results from a high-resolution (∼1 km) Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The circulation in the Persian Gulf is composed of two spatial scales: basin scale and mesoscale. The progression of a cyclonic circulation cell dominates the basin-scale circulation in the eastern half of the gulf (52°–55°E) during March–July. This is primarily the consequence of density-driven outflow–inflow through the Strait of Hormuz and strong stratification. A northwestward-flowing Iranian Coastal Current (ICC; 30–40 cm s−1) between the Strait of Hormuz and north of Qatar (∼52°E) forms the northern flank of the cell. Between July and August the ICC becomes unstable because of the baroclinic instability mechanism by releasing the potential energy stored in the cross-shelf density gradient. As a result, the meanders in the ICC evolve into a series of mesoscale eddies, which is denoted as the Iranian coastal eddies (ICE). The ICE have a diameter of about 115–130 km and extend vertically over most of the water column. Three cyclonic eddies produced by the model during August–September 2005 compared quite well with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) SST and chlorophyll-a observations. The remnants of ICE are seen until November, after which they dissipate as the winter cooling causes the thermocline to collapse.

Corresponding author address: Prasad Thoppil, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7323, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529. Email: thoppil@nrlssc.navy.mil

Save