An Estimate of the Lorenz Energy Cycle for the World Ocean Based on the STORM/NCEP Simulation

Jin-Song von Storch * Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany

Search for other papers by Jin-Song von Storch in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Carsten Eden Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Search for other papers by Carsten Eden in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Irina Fast German Climate Computing Center, Hamburg, Germany

Search for other papers by Irina Fast in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Helmuth Haak * Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany

Search for other papers by Helmuth Haak in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Daniel Hernández-Deckers * Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany
Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Search for other papers by Daniel Hernández-Deckers in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ernst Maier-Reimer * Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany

Search for other papers by Ernst Maier-Reimer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jochem Marotzke * Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany

Search for other papers by Jochem Marotzke in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Detlef Stammer Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Search for other papers by Detlef Stammer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

This paper presents an estimate of the oceanic Lorenz energy cycle derived from a simulation forced by 6-hourly fluxes obtained from NCEP–NCAR reanalysis-1. The total rate of energy generation amounts to 6.6 TW, of which 1.9 TW is generated by the time-mean winds and 2.2 TW by the time-varying winds. The dissipation of kinetic energy amounts to 4.4 TW, of which 3 TW originate from the dissipation of eddy kinetic energy. The energy exchange between reservoirs is dominated by the baroclinic pathway and the pathway that distributes the energy generated by the time-mean winds. The former converts 0.7 to 0.8 TW mean available potential energy to eddy available potential energy and finally to eddy kinetic energy, whereas the latter converts 0.5 TW mean kinetic energy to mean available potential energy.

This energy cycle differs from the atmospheric one in two aspects. First, the generation of the mean kinetic and mean available potential energy is each, to a first approximation, balanced by the dissipation. The interaction of the oceanic general circulation with mesoscale eddies is hence less crucial than the corresponding interaction in the atmosphere. Second, the baroclinic pathway in the ocean is facilitated not only by the surface buoyancy flux but also by the winds through a conversion of 0.5 TW mean kinetic energy to mean available potential energy. In the atmosphere, the respective conversion is almost absent and the baroclinic energy pathway is driven solely by the differential heating.

Corresponding author address: Jin-Song von Storch, Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. E-mail: jin-song.von.storch@zmaw.de

Abstract

This paper presents an estimate of the oceanic Lorenz energy cycle derived from a simulation forced by 6-hourly fluxes obtained from NCEP–NCAR reanalysis-1. The total rate of energy generation amounts to 6.6 TW, of which 1.9 TW is generated by the time-mean winds and 2.2 TW by the time-varying winds. The dissipation of kinetic energy amounts to 4.4 TW, of which 3 TW originate from the dissipation of eddy kinetic energy. The energy exchange between reservoirs is dominated by the baroclinic pathway and the pathway that distributes the energy generated by the time-mean winds. The former converts 0.7 to 0.8 TW mean available potential energy to eddy available potential energy and finally to eddy kinetic energy, whereas the latter converts 0.5 TW mean kinetic energy to mean available potential energy.

This energy cycle differs from the atmospheric one in two aspects. First, the generation of the mean kinetic and mean available potential energy is each, to a first approximation, balanced by the dissipation. The interaction of the oceanic general circulation with mesoscale eddies is hence less crucial than the corresponding interaction in the atmosphere. Second, the baroclinic pathway in the ocean is facilitated not only by the surface buoyancy flux but also by the winds through a conversion of 0.5 TW mean kinetic energy to mean available potential energy. In the atmosphere, the respective conversion is almost absent and the baroclinic energy pathway is driven solely by the differential heating.

Corresponding author address: Jin-Song von Storch, Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. E-mail: jin-song.von.storch@zmaw.de
Save
  • Böning, C. W., and A. J. Semtner, 2001: High-resolution modelling of the thermohaline and wind-driven circulation. Ocean Circulation and Climate, G. Siedler, J. Church, and J. Gould, Eds., Academic Press, 59–77.

  • Cox, M. D., 1985: An eddy resolving model of the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 13121324.

  • Ferrari, R., and C. Wunsch, 2009: Ocean circulation kinetic energy: Reservoirs, sources, and sinks. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 41, 253282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrari, R., and C. Wunsch, 2010: The distribution of eddy kinetic and potential energies in the global ocean. Tellus, 62A, 92108.

  • Hernández-Deckers, D., and J.-S. von Storch, 2010: Energetics responses to increases in greenhouse gas concentration. J. Climate, 23, 38753887.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hernández-Deckers, D., and J.-S. von Storch, 2011: The energetics response to a warmer climate: Relative contribution from the transient and stationary eddies. Earth Syst. Dyn., 2, 105120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, R. X., 2004: Ocean energy flows. Encyclopedia of Energy, Vol. 4, Elsevier, 497–509.

  • Jochum, M., P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, and A. Busalacchi, 2004: Tropical instability waves in the Atlantic Ocean. Ocean Modell., 7, 145163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, D., 2000: Entropy, the Lorenz energy cycle and climate. General Circulation Model Development: Past, Present and Future, D. Randall, Ed., Academic Press, 659–720.

  • Jungclaus, J. H., and Coauthors, 2006: Ocean circulation and tropical variability in the coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM. J. Climate, 19, 39523972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437471.

  • Lee, M.-M., A. J. G. Nurser, A. C. Coward, and B. A. De Cuevas, 2007: Eddy advective and diffusive transports of heat and salt in the Southern ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 13761393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, L., A. P. Ingersoll, X. Jiang, D. Feldman, and L. Y. Yuk, 2007: Lorenz energy cycle of the global atmosphere based on reanalysis datasets. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16813, doi:10.1029/2007GL029985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenz, E. N., 1955: Available potential energy and the maintenance of the general circulation. Tellus, 7, 157167.

  • Lucarini, V., 2009: Thermodynamic efficiency and entropy production in the climate system. Phys. Rev., 80E, 021118, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.021118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lucarini, V., and F. Ragone, 2011: Energetics of climate models: Net energy balance and meridional enthalpy transport. Rev. Geophys., 49, RG1001, doi:10.1029/2009RG000323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maltrud, M. E., and J. L. McClean, 2005: An eddy resolving global ocean simulation. Ocean Modell., 8, 3154.

  • Maltrud, M. E., F. O. Bryan, and S. Peacock, 2010: Boundary impulse response functions in a century-long global eddying ocean simulation. Environ. Fluid Mech., 10, 275295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masumoto, Y., and Coauthors, 2004: A fifty-year eddy-resolving simulation of the world Ocean—Preliminary outcomes of OFES (OGCM for the Earth Simulator). J. Earth Simul., 1, 3556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maximenko, N. A., B. Bang, and H. Sasaki, 2005: Observational evidence of alternating zonal jets in the world ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12607, doi:10.1029/2005GL022728.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Munk, W., and C. Wunsch, 1998: Abyssal recipes II: Energetics of tidal and wind mixing. Deep-Sea Res., 45, 19762009.

  • Olbers, D., J. Willebrand, and C. Eden, 2012: Ocean Dynamics. Springer Verlag, 199 pp.

  • Oort, A. H., and J. P. Peixoto, 1983: Global angular momentum and energy balance requirements from observations. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 25, Academic Press, 355–490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peixoto, J. P., and A. H. Oort, 1992: Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, 520 pp.

  • Röske, F., 2006: A global heat and freshwater forcing dataset for ocean models. Ocean Modell., 11, 235297.

  • Sandström, J. W., 1908: Dynamische versuche mit Meerwasser. Ann. Hydrogr. Martimen Meteor., 36, 623.

  • Sandström, J. W., 1916: Meteorologische Studien in Schwedischen Hochgebirge. Goteborgs Kungl. Vensk. Vitterh.-Samh. Handingar, 27, 148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sasaki, H., and Coauthors, 2004: A series of eddy-resolving ocean simulations in the world ocean: OFES (OGCM for the Earth Simulator) project. Proc. OCEANS ’04, Kobe, Japan, IEEE, 1535–1541.

  • Sasaki, H., M. Nonaka, Y. Masumoto, Y. Sasai, H. Uehara, and H. Sakuma, 2008: An eddy-resolving hindcast simulation of the quasiglobal ocean from 1950 to 2003 on the Earth Simulator. High Resolution Numerical Modelling of the Atmosphere and Ocean, K. Hamilton and W. Ohfuchi, Eds., Springer, 157–185.

  • Scharffenberg, M., and D. Stammer, 2010: Seasonal variations of the large-scale geostrophic flow field and eddy kinetic energy inferred from the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 tandem mission data. J. Geophy. Res.,115, C02008, doi:10.1029/2008JC005242.

  • Tailleux, R. G. J., 2009: On the energetics of stratified turbulent mixing, irreversible thermodynamics, Boussinesq models and the ocean heat engine controversy. J. Fluid Mech.,638, 339–382, doi:10.1017/S002211200999111X.

  • Tailleux, R. G. J., 2010: Entropy versus APE production: On the buoyancy power input in the oceans energy cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett.,37, L22603, doi:10.1029/2010GL044962.

  • von Storch, J.-S., H. Sasaki, and J. Marotzke, 2007: Wind-generated power input to the deep ocean: An estimate using a degree general circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 657672.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wunsch, C., 1998: The work done by the wind on the oceanic general circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 23322340.

  • Wunsch, C., and R. Ferrari, 2004: Vertical mixing, energy, and the general circulation of the oceans. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 36, 281314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 3709 904 120
PDF Downloads 2517 713 69