• Berry, D. I., and E. C. Kent, 2009: A new air–sea interaction gridded dataset from ICOADS with uncertainty estimates. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 645656.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brodeau, L., B. Barnier, A. M. Treguier, T. Penduff, and S. Gulev, 2009: An ERA-40-based atmospheric forcing for global ocean circulation models. Ocean Modell., 31, 88104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, R. E., 1994: Diapycnal mixing in the ocean: Equations for large-scale budgets. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 777800.

  • de Szoeke, R., 2004: An effect of the thermobaric nonlinearity of the equation of state: A mechanism for sustaining solitary rossby waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 20422056.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fichefet, T., and M. M. Maqueda, 1997: Sensitivity of a global sea ice model to the treatment of ice thermodynamics and dynamics. J. Geophys. Res., 102 (C6), 609646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gent, P. R., and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 150155.

  • Gnanadesikan, A., R. D. Slater, P. S. Swathi, and G. K. Vallis, 2005: The energetic of ocean heat transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 26042616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gouretski, V. V., and K. P. Koltermann, 2004: Global hydrographic climatology: A technical report. Berichte des Bundesamtes für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie Tech. Rep. 30, 52 pp.

  • Griffies, S. M., and R. J. Greatbatch, 2012: Physical processes that impact the evolution of the global mean sea level in ocean climate models. Ocean Modell., 51, 3771.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 2010: The international thermodynamic equation of seawater 2010: Calculation and use of thermodynamic properties. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Manuals and Guides 56, UNESCO, 196 pp.

  • Jackett, D. R., and T. J. McDougall, 1995: Minimal adjustment of hydrographic data to achieve static stability. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12, 381389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S.-K. Yang, J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. Potter, 2002: NCEP–DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 16311643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klocker, A., and T. J. McDougall, 2010: Influences of the nonlinear equation of state on global estimates of dianeutral advection and diffusion. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,40, 21 690–21 708.

  • Levitus, S., 1982 : Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Prof. Paper 13, 173 pp. and 17 microfiche.

  • Madec, G., cited 2008: NEMO ocean engine. L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Rep. 27, 219 pp. [Available online at http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/content/download/11245/56055/file/NEMO_book_v3_2.pdf.]

  • McDougall, T. J., 2003: Potential enthalpy: A conservative ocean variable for evaluating heat content and heat fluxes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 945963.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDougall, T. J., and J. R. Garrett, 1992: Scalar conservation equations in a turbulent ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 39, 19531966.

  • Munk, W. H., and C. I. Wunch, 1998: Abyssal recipes. II: Energetics of tidal and wind mixing. Deep-Sea Res., 1, 19772010.

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, cited 2011: GODAS data. [Available online at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.godas.html.]

  • Nycander, J., 2011: Energy conversion, mixing energy and neutral surfaces with a nonlinear equation of state. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 2841.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stein, C. A., and S. Stein, 1992: A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat flow with lithospheric age. Nature, 359, 123129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tziperman, E., 1986: On the role of interior mixing and air-sea fluxes in determining the stratification and circulation of the ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16, 680692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vallis, G. K., 2006: Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge University Press, 36 pp.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 249 140 8
PDF Downloads 144 89 3

The Buoyancy Budget with a Nonlinear Equation of State

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Restricted access

Abstract

The nonlinear equation of state of seawater introduces a sink or source of buoyancy when water parcels of unequal salinities and temperatures are mixed. This article contains quantitative estimates of these nonlinear effects on the buoyancy budget of the global ocean. It is shown that the interior buoyancy sink can be determined from surface buoyancy fluxes. These surface buoyancy fluxes are calculated using two surface heat flux climatologies, one based on in situ measurements and the other on a reanalysis, in both cases using a nonlinear equation of state. It is also found that the buoyancy budget in the ocean general circulation model Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean (NEMO) is in good agreement with the buoyancy budgets based on the heat flux climatologies. Moreover, an examination of the vertically resolved buoyancy budget in NEMO shows that in large parts of the ocean the nonlinear buoyancy sink gives the largest contribution to this budget.

Corresponding author address: Magnus Hieronymus, Dept. of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm S-10691, Sweden. E-mail: magnus@misu.su.se

Abstract

The nonlinear equation of state of seawater introduces a sink or source of buoyancy when water parcels of unequal salinities and temperatures are mixed. This article contains quantitative estimates of these nonlinear effects on the buoyancy budget of the global ocean. It is shown that the interior buoyancy sink can be determined from surface buoyancy fluxes. These surface buoyancy fluxes are calculated using two surface heat flux climatologies, one based on in situ measurements and the other on a reanalysis, in both cases using a nonlinear equation of state. It is also found that the buoyancy budget in the ocean general circulation model Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean (NEMO) is in good agreement with the buoyancy budgets based on the heat flux climatologies. Moreover, an examination of the vertically resolved buoyancy budget in NEMO shows that in large parts of the ocean the nonlinear buoyancy sink gives the largest contribution to this budget.

Corresponding author address: Magnus Hieronymus, Dept. of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm S-10691, Sweden. E-mail: magnus@misu.su.se
Save