• Allen, J. S., 1976: Some aspects of the forced wave response of stratified coastal regions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 113119.

  • Allen, J. S., 1980: Models of wind-driven currents on the continental shelf. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 12, 389433, doi:10.1146/annurev.fl.12.010180.002133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berrisford, P., D. Dee, M. P. Fielding, K. Fuentes, S. Kobayashi, and S. Uppala, 2009: The ERA-Interim Achive. ECMWF Tech. Rep. 1, 16 pp. [Available online at http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/do/references/show?id=89203.]

  • Brearley, J. A., R. S. Pickart, H. Valdimarsson, S. Jonsson, R. W. Schmitt, and T. W. Haine, 2012: The East Greenland boundary current system south of Denmark Strait. Deep-Sea Res. I, 63, 119, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2012.01.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brink, K. H., 1982: A comparison of long coastal trapped wave theory with observations off Peru. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 897913.

  • Brink, K. H., 1991: Coastal-trapped waves and wind-driven currents over the continental shelf. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 23, 389412, doi:10.1146/annurev.fl.23.010191.002133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bruce, J. G., 1995: Eddies southwest of the Denmark Strait. Deep-Sea Res. I, 42, 1329, doi:10.1016/0967-0637(94)00040-Y.

  • Dickson, R. R., and J. Brown, 1994: The production of North Atlantic Deep Water: Sources, rates, and pathways. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 12 31912 341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Falina, A., A. Sarafanov, H. Mercier, P. Lherminier, A. Sokov, and N. Daniault, 2012: On the cascading of dense shelf waters in the Irminger Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 22542267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fratantoni, P. S., S. Zimmermann, R. S. Pickart, and M. Swartz, 2006: Western Arctic Shelf–Basin Interactions Experiment: Processing of moored profiler data from the Beaufort Shelf Edge mooring array. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Tech. Rep. WHOI-2006-15, 29 pp, doi:10.1575/1912/1429.

  • Haine, T. W. N., S. Zhang, G. W. K. Moore, and I. A. Renfrew, 2009: On the impact of high-resolution, high-frequency meteorological forcing on Denmark Strait ocean circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 20672085, doi:10.1002/qj.505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harden, B. E., 2012: Barrier winds off southeast Greenland and their impact on the ocean. Ph.D. thesis, University of East Anglia, 172 pp.

  • Harden, B. E., I. A. Renfrew, and G. N. Petersen, 2011: A climatology of wintertime barrier winds off southeast Greenland. J. Climate, 24, 47014717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huthnance, J. M., 1978: On coastal trapped waves: Analysis and numerical calculation by inverse iteration. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 8, 7492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Macrander, A., U. Send, H. Valdimarsson, S. Jónsson, and R. H. Käse, 2005: Interannual changes in the overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through Denmark Strait. Geophys. Res. Lett.,32, L06606, doi:10.1029/2004GL021463.

  • Magaldi, M. G., T. W. N. Haine, and R. S. Pickart, 2011: On the nature and variability of the East Greenland Spill Jet: A case study in summer 2003. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 23072327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, G. W. K., and I. A. Renfrew, 2005: Tip Jets and Barrier Winds: A QuikSCAT climatology of high wind speed events around Greenland. J. Climate, 18, 37133725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, G. W. K., R. S. Pickart, and I. A. Renfrew, 2008: Buoy observations from the windiest location in the world ocean, Cape Farewell, Greenland. Geophys. Res. Lett.,35, L18802, doi:10.1029/2008GL034845.

  • Mysak, L., 1980: Topographically trapped waves. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 12, 4576, doi:10.1146/annurev.fl.12.010180.000401.

  • National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 2004: Handbook of Magnetic Compass Adjustment. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 45 pp.

  • Parish, T. R., 1983: The influence of the Antarctic Peninsula on the wind field over the western Weddell Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 26842692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pickart, R. S., D. J. Torres, and P. S. Fratantoni, 2005: The East Greenland Spill Jet. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 10371053.

  • Pickart, R. S., M. A. Spall, G. W. K. Moore, T. J. Weingartner, R. A. Woodgate, K. Aagaard, and K. Shimada, 2011: Upwelling in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Atmospheric forcing and local versus non-local response. Prog. Oceanogr., 88, 78100, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2010.11.005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pickart, R. S., M. A. Spall, and J. T. Mathis, 2013: Dynamics of upwelling in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and associated shelf–basin fluxes. Deep-Sea Res. I, 76, 35–51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sampe, T., and S.-P. Xie, 2007: Mapping high sea winds from space: A global climatology. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 19651978.

  • Schulze, L. M., and R. S. Pickart, 2012: Seasonal variation of upwelling in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Impact of sea ice cover. J. Geophys. Res.,117, C06022, doi:10.1029/2012JC007985.

  • Schwerdtfeger, W., 1975: The effect of the Antarctic Peninsula on the temperature regime of the Weddell Sea. Mon. Wea. Rev., 103, 4551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spall, M. A., and J. F. Price, 1998: Mesoscale variability in Denmark Strait: The PV outflow hypothesis. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 15981623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • von Appen, W.-J., 2012: Moored observations of shelfbreak processes at the inflow to and outflow from the Arctic Ocean. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Cambridge/Woods Hole, MA, 275 pp.

  • Williams, W. J., E. C. Carmack, K. Shimada, H. Melling, K. Aagaard, R. W. Macdonald, and G. R. Ingram, 2006: Joint effects of wind and ice motion in forcing upwelling in Mackenzie Trough, Beaufort Sea. Cont. Shelf Res., 26, 23522366, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2006.06.012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 140 62 2
PDF Downloads 90 38 1

Offshore Transport of Dense Water from the East Greenland Shelf

View More View Less
  • 1 University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • | 2 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
  • | 3 University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
Restricted access

Abstract

Data from a mooring deployed at the edge of the East Greenland shelf south of Denmark Strait from September 2007 to October 2008 are analyzed to investigate the processes by which dense water is transferred off the shelf. It is found that water denser than 27.7 kg m−3—as dense as water previously attributed to the adjacent East Greenland Spill Jet—resides near the bottom of the shelf for most of the year with no discernible seasonality. The mean velocity in the central part of the water column is directed along the isobaths, while the deep flow is bottom intensified and veers offshore. Two mechanisms for driving dense spilling events are investigated, one due to offshore forcing and the other associated with wind forcing. Denmark Strait cyclones propagating southward along the continental slope are shown to drive off-shelf flow at their leading edges and are responsible for much of the triggering of individual spilling events. Northerly barrier winds also force spilling. Local winds generate an Ekman downwelling cell. Nonlocal winds also excite spilling, which is hypothesized to be the result of southward-propagating coastally trapped waves, although definitive confirmation is still required. The combined effect of the eddies and barrier winds results in the strongest spilling events, while in the absence of winds a train of eddies causes enhanced spilling.

Corresponding author address: Benjamin Harden, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543. E-mail: bharden@whoi.edu

Abstract

Data from a mooring deployed at the edge of the East Greenland shelf south of Denmark Strait from September 2007 to October 2008 are analyzed to investigate the processes by which dense water is transferred off the shelf. It is found that water denser than 27.7 kg m−3—as dense as water previously attributed to the adjacent East Greenland Spill Jet—resides near the bottom of the shelf for most of the year with no discernible seasonality. The mean velocity in the central part of the water column is directed along the isobaths, while the deep flow is bottom intensified and veers offshore. Two mechanisms for driving dense spilling events are investigated, one due to offshore forcing and the other associated with wind forcing. Denmark Strait cyclones propagating southward along the continental slope are shown to drive off-shelf flow at their leading edges and are responsible for much of the triggering of individual spilling events. Northerly barrier winds also force spilling. Local winds generate an Ekman downwelling cell. Nonlocal winds also excite spilling, which is hypothesized to be the result of southward-propagating coastally trapped waves, although definitive confirmation is still required. The combined effect of the eddies and barrier winds results in the strongest spilling events, while in the absence of winds a train of eddies causes enhanced spilling.

Corresponding author address: Benjamin Harden, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543. E-mail: bharden@whoi.edu
Save