• Aagaard, K., and E. C. Carmack, 1989: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14 48514 498, doi:10.1029/JC094iC10p14485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alkire, M. B., K. K. Falkner, I. Rigor, M. Steele, and J. Morison, 2007: The return of Pacific waters to the upper layers of the central Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 54, 15091529, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.06.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belkin, I. M., 2004: Propagation of the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1990s around the northern North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L08306, doi:10.1029/2003GL019334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beszczynska-Möller, A., R. A. Woodgate, C. Lee, H. Melling, and M. Karcher, 2011: A synthesis of exchanges through the main oceanic gateways to the Arctic Ocean. Oceanography, 24, 8299, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2011.59.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bretherton, F. P., R. E. Davis, and C. B. Fandry, 1976: A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiments applied to MODE-73. Deep-Sea Res. Oceanogr. Abstr., 23, 559582, doi:10.1016/0011-7471(76)90001-2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryden, H. L., H. R. Longworth, and S. A. Cunningham, 2005: Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25°N. Nature, 438, 655657, doi:10.1038/nature04385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Copland, L., D. R. Mueller, and L. Weir, 2007: Rapid loss of the Ayles Ice Shelf, Ellesmere Island, Canada. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21501, doi:10.1029/2007GL031809.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Curry, B., C. M. Lee, B. Petrie, R. E. Moritz, and R. Kwok, 2014: Multiyear volume, liquid freshwater, and sea ice transports through Davis Strait, 2004–10. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 12441266, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0177.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Curry, R., and C. Mauritzen, 2005: Dilution of the northern North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades. Science, 308, 17721774, doi:10.1126/science.1109477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Steur, L., E. Hansen, R. Gerdes, M. Karcher, E. Fahrbach, and J. Holfort, 2009: Freshwater fluxes in the East Greenland Current: A decade of observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L23611, doi:10.1029/2009GL041278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dickson, B., I. Yashayaev, J. Meincke, B. Turrell, S. Dye, and J. Holfort, 2002: Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature, 416, 832837, doi:10.1038/416832a.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dickson, R., B. Rudels, S. Dye, M. Karcher, J. Meincke, and I. Yashayaev, 2007: Current estimates of freshwater flux through Arctic and subarctic seas. Prog. Oceanogr., 73, 210230, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2006.12.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emile-Geay, J., M. A. Cane, N. Naik, R. Seager, A. C. Clement, and A. van Geen, 2003: Warren revisited: Atmospheric freshwater fluxes and “Why is no deep water formed in the North Pacific.” J. Geophys. Res., 108, 3178, doi:10.1029/2001JC001058.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fofonoff, N., and H. Bryden, 1975: Density of sea waters. J. Mar. Res., 41, 6982.

  • Garvine, R. W., 1985: A simple model of estuarine subtidal fluctuations forced by local and remote wind stress. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 11 94511 948, doi:10.1029/JC090iC06p11945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greene, C., J. Pershing, T. Cronin, and N. Ceci, 2008: Arctic climate change and its impacts on the ecology of the North Atlantic. Ecology, 89, S24S38, doi:10.1890/07-0550.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haine, T. W. N., and Coauthors, 2015: Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects. Global Planet. Change, 125, 1335, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.11.013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holland, M. M., J. Finnis, A. P. Barrett, and M. C. Serreze, 2007: Projected changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets. J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:10.1029/2006JG000354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, J. W., and C. Deser, 2009: North Atlantic climate variability: The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Mar. Syst., 78, 2841, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.11.026.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jahn, A., and Coauthors, 2012: Arctic Ocean freshwater: How robust are model simulations? J. Geophys. Res., 117, C00D16, doi:10.1029/2012JC007907.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, H., A. Münchow, K. Falkner, and H. Melling, 2011: Ocean circulation and properties in Petermann Fjord, Greenland. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C01003, doi:10.1029/2010JC006519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khatiwala, S. P., R. G. Fairbanks, and R. W. Houghton, 1999: Freshwater sources to the coastal ocean off northeastern North America: Evidence from 18O/H2 16O. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 18 24118 255, doi:10.1029/1999JC900155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koenigk, T., U. Mikolajewicz, H. Haak, and J. Jungclaus, 2007: Arctic freshwater export in the 20th and 21st centuries. J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S41, doi:10.1029/2006JG000274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kundu, P., and J. Allen, 1976: Some three-dimensional characteristics of low-frequency current fluctuations near the Oregon coast. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 181199, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1976)006<0181:STDCOL>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kwok, R., and D. A. Rothrock, 2009: Decline in Arctic sea ice thickness from submarine and ICESat records: 1958–2008. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15501, doi:10.1029/2009GL039035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kwok, R., L. T. Pedersen, P. Gudmandsen, and S. S. Pang, 2010: Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L03502, doi:10.1029/2009GL041872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeBlond, P. H., 1980: On the surface circulation in some channels of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Arctic, 33, 189197, doi:10.14430/arctic2554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindsay, R. W., J. Zhang, A. Schweiger, M. Steele, and H. Stern, 2009: Arctic sea ice retreat in 2007 follows thinning trend. J. Climate, 22, 165176, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2521.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, Y. Y., S. Higginson, S. Nudds, S. Prinsenberg, and G. Garric, 2014: Model simulated volume fluxes through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Davis Strait: Linking monthly variations to forcing in different seasons. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 19271942, doi:10.1002/2013JC009408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGeehan, T., and W. Maslowski, 2012: Evaluation and control mechanisms of volume and freshwater export through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in a high-resolution pan-Arctic ice-ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C00D14, doi:10.1029/2011JC007261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McIntosh, P. C., 1990: Oceanographic data interpolation: Objective analysis and splines. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 13 52913 541, doi:10.1029/JC095iC08p13529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melling, H., 1998: Sound scattering from sea ice: Aspects relevant to ice-draft profiling by sonar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 10231034, doi:10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<1023:SSFSIA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melling, H., P. Johnston, and D. Riedel, 1995: Measurements of the underside topography of sea ice by moored subsea sonar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12, 589602, doi:10.1175/1520-0426(1995)012<0589:MOTUTO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melling, H., Y. Gratton, and G. Ingram, 2001: Ocean circulation within the North Water polynya of Baffin Bay. Atmos.–Ocean, 39, 301325, doi:10.1080/07055900.2001.9649683.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melling, H., and Coauthors, 2008: Fresh-water fluxes via Pacific and Arctic outflows across the Canadian polar shelf. Arctic–Subarctic Ocean Fluxes, R. R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, Eds., Springer, 193–247.

  • Morison, J., M. Steele, and R. Andersen, 1998: Hydrography of the upper Arctic Ocean measured from the nuclear submarine U.S.S. Pargo. Deep-Sea Res., 45, 1538, doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00025-3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Münchow, A., and H. Melling, 2008: Ocean current observations from Nares Strait to the west of Greenland: Interannual to tidal variability and forcing. J. Mar. Res., 66, 801833, doi:10.1357/002224008788064612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Münchow, A., H. Melling, and K. K. Falkner, 2006: An observational estimate of volume and freshwater flux leaving the Arctic Ocean through Nares Strait. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 20252041, doi:10.1175/JPO2962.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Münchow, A., K. K. Falkner, and H. Melling, 2007: Spatial continuity of measured seawater and tracer fluxes through Nares Strait, a dynamically wide channel bordering the Canadian Archipelago. J. Mar. Res., 65, 759788, doi:10.1357/002224007784219048.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Münchow, A., K. K. Falkner, H. Melling, B. Rabe, and H. L. Johnson, 2011: Ocean warming of Nares Strait bottom waters off northwest Greenland, 2003–2009. Oceanography, 24, 114123, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2011.62.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Münchow, A., K. K. Falkner, and H. Melling, 2015: Baffin Island and West Greenland Current systems in northern Baffin Bay. Prog. Oceanogr., 132, 305317, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.04.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Myers, P. G., 2005: Impact of freshwater from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago on Labrador Sea Water formation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L06605, doi:10.1029/2004GL022082.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri, 2008: Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07003, doi:10.1029/2007JC004558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peterson, B. J., R. M. Holmes, J. W. McClelland, C. J. Vorosmarty, R. B. Lammers, A. I. Shiklomanov, I. A. Shiklomanov, and S. Rahmstorf, 2002: Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean. Science, 298, 21712173, doi:10.1126/science.1077445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peterson, I., J. Hamilton, S. Prinsenberg, and R. Pettipas, 2012: Wind-forcing of volume transport through Lancaster Sound. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C11018, doi:10.1029/2012JC008140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Polyakov, I. V., and Coauthors, 2008: Arctic Ocean freshwater changes over the past 100 years and their causes. J. Climate, 21, 364384, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1748.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Proshutinsky, A., and Coauthors, 2009: Beaufort Gyre freshwater reservoir: State and variability from observations. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A10, doi:10.1029/2008JC005104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabe, B., A. Münchow, H. Johnson, and H. Melling, 2010: Nares Strait hydrography and salinity field from a 3-year moored array. J. Geophys. Res., 115, C07010, doi:10.1029/2009JC005966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabe, B., H. Johnson, A. Münchow, and H. Melling, 2012: Geostrophic currents and freshwater fluxes through Nares Strait to the west of northern Greenland. J. Mar. Res., 70, 603640, doi:10.1357/002224012805262725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabe, B., and Coauthors, 2013: Liquid export of Arctic freshwater components through the Fram Strait 1998–2011. Ocean Sci., 9, 91109, doi:10.5194/os-9-91-2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabe, B., and Coauthors, 2014: Arctic Ocean basin liquid freshwater storage trend 1992–2012. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 961968, doi:10.1002/2013GL058121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rignot, E., and K. Steffen, 2008: Channelized bottom melting and stability of floating ice shelves. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L02503, doi:10.1029/2007GL031765.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rigor, I. G., J. M. Wallace, and R. L. Colony, 2002: Response of sea ice to the Arctic oscillation. J. Climate, 15, 26482663, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2648:ROSITT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sadler, H., 1976: Water, heat, and salt transport through Nares Strait, Ellesmere Island. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 33, 22862295, doi:10.1139/f76-275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samelson, R., and P. Barbour, 2008: Low-level winds in Nares Strait: A model-based mesoscale climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 47464759, doi:10.1175/2007MWR2326.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sandwell, D. T., 1987: Biharmonic spline interpolation of GEOS-3 and SEASAT altimeter data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 14, 139142, doi:10.1029/GL014i002p00139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shroyer, E. L., R. M. Samelson, L. Padman, and A. Münchow, 2015: Modeled ocean circulation in Nares Strait and its dependence on landfast-ice cover. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, doi:10.1002/2015JC011091, in press.

  • Smith, W. H. F., and P. Wessel, 1990: Gridding with continuous curvature splines in tension. Geophysics, 55, 293305, doi:10.1190/1.1442837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steffen, K., and A. Schweiger, 1991: NASA team algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave Imager: Comparison with Landsat satellite imagery. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 21 97121 987, doi:10.1029/91JC02334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stroeve, J. C., J. Maslanik, M. C. Serreze, I. Rigor, W. Meier, and C. Fowler, 2011: Sea ice response to an extreme negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation during winter 2009/2010. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02502, doi:10.1029/2010GL045662.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stroeve, J. C., M. C. Serreze, M. M. Holland, J. E. Kay, J. Malanik, and A. P. Barrett, 2012: The Arctic’s rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: A research synthesis. Climatic Change, 110, 10051027, doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0101-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sundby, S., and K. Drinkwater, 2007: On the mechanisms behind salinity anomaly signals of the northern North Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr., 73, 190202, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2007.02.002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Timmermans, M. L., A. Proshutinsky, R. A. Krishfield, D. K. Perovich, J. A. Richter-Menge, T. P. Stanton, and J. M. Toole, 2011: Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean’s Eurasian basin: An apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C00D03, doi:10.1029/2011JC006975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Visbeck, M., and J. Fischer, 1995: Sea surface conditions remotely sensed by upward-looking ADCP. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12, 141149, doi:10.1175/1520-0426(1995)012<0141:SSCRSB>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wekerle, C., Q. Wang, S. Danilov, T. Jung, and J. Schroter, 2013: The Canadian Arctic Archipelago throughflow in a multiresolution global model: Model assessment and the driving mechanism of interannual variability. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, 45254541, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wessel, P., 2009: A general-purpose Green’s function-based interpolator. Comput. Geosci., 35, 12471254, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2008.08.012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, D., and Coauthors, 2007: The Arctic freshwater system: Changes and impacts. J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S54, doi:10.1029/2006JG000353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodgate, R. A., T. J. Weingartner, and R. Lindsay, 2012: Observed increases in Bering Strait oceanic fluxes from the Pacific to the Arctic from 2001 to 2011 and their impacts on the Arctic Ocean water column. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L24603, doi:10.1029/2012GL054092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wunsch, C., and P. Heimbach, 2006: Estimated decadal changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and heat flux 1993–2004. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 20122024, doi:10.1175/JPO2957.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zweng, M. M., and A. Münchow, 2006: Warming and freshening of Baffin Bay, 1916–2003. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C07016, doi:10.1029/2005JC003093.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 3 3 3
PDF Downloads 1 1 1

Volume and Freshwater Flux Observations from Nares Strait to the West of Greenland at Daily Time Scales from 2003 to 2009

View More View Less
  • 1 University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware
Restricted access

Abstract

Time series observations of velocity, salinity, pressure, and ice draft provide estimates of advective fluxes in Nares Strait from 2003 to 2009 at daily to interannual time scales. Velocity and salinity are integrated across the 36-km-wide and 350-m-deep channel for two distinct multiyear periods of sea ice cover. These observations indicate multiyear mean fluxes that range from 0.71 ± 0.09 to 1.03 ± 0.11 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1 = 31 536 km3 yr−1) for volume and from 32 ± 5.7 to 54 ± 9.3 mSv (1 mSv ≡ 103 m3 s−1) for oceanic freshwater relative to a salinity of 34.8 for the first (2003–06) and second (2007–09) periods, respectively. Advection of ice adds another 8 ± 2 mSv or 260 ± 70 km3 yr−1 to the freshwater export. Flux values are larger when the sea ice is mobile all year. About 75% of the oceanic volume and freshwater flux variability is correlated at daily to interannual time scales. Flux variability peaks at a 20-day time scale and correlates strongly with along-channel pressure gradients (r2 = 0.68). The along-channel pressure gradient peaks in early spring when the sea ice is often motionless with higher sea level in the Arctic that drives the generally southward ocean circulation. Local winds contribute only when the sea ice is mobile, when they explain 60% of its variance (r2 = 0.60). Observed annual to interannual change in the duration of motionless sea ice conditions impacts ocean stratification and freshwater flux, while seasonal variations are small.

Denotes Open Access content.

Corresponding author address: Andreas Münchow, College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment, University of Delaware, 112A Robinson Hall, Newark, DE 19716. E-mail: muenchow@udel.edu

Abstract

Time series observations of velocity, salinity, pressure, and ice draft provide estimates of advective fluxes in Nares Strait from 2003 to 2009 at daily to interannual time scales. Velocity and salinity are integrated across the 36-km-wide and 350-m-deep channel for two distinct multiyear periods of sea ice cover. These observations indicate multiyear mean fluxes that range from 0.71 ± 0.09 to 1.03 ± 0.11 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1 = 31 536 km3 yr−1) for volume and from 32 ± 5.7 to 54 ± 9.3 mSv (1 mSv ≡ 103 m3 s−1) for oceanic freshwater relative to a salinity of 34.8 for the first (2003–06) and second (2007–09) periods, respectively. Advection of ice adds another 8 ± 2 mSv or 260 ± 70 km3 yr−1 to the freshwater export. Flux values are larger when the sea ice is mobile all year. About 75% of the oceanic volume and freshwater flux variability is correlated at daily to interannual time scales. Flux variability peaks at a 20-day time scale and correlates strongly with along-channel pressure gradients (r2 = 0.68). The along-channel pressure gradient peaks in early spring when the sea ice is often motionless with higher sea level in the Arctic that drives the generally southward ocean circulation. Local winds contribute only when the sea ice is mobile, when they explain 60% of its variance (r2 = 0.60). Observed annual to interannual change in the duration of motionless sea ice conditions impacts ocean stratification and freshwater flux, while seasonal variations are small.

Denotes Open Access content.

Corresponding author address: Andreas Münchow, College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment, University of Delaware, 112A Robinson Hall, Newark, DE 19716. E-mail: muenchow@udel.edu
Save