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Mutual Enhancement of Wind- and Tide-Induced Near-Inertial Internal Waves in Luzon Strait

Zhiwu ChenaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
bSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China

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https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5905-9769
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Gengbin LiuaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
cUniversity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Zhiyu LiudState Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, and Department of Physical Oceanography, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China

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Shaomin ChenaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
cUniversity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Huaihao LuaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
cUniversity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Jiexin XuaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
bSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China

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Yankun GongaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
bSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China

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Jieshuo XieaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
bSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China

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Yinghui HeaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
bSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China

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Ju ChenaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
bSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China
eXisha Marine Environmental National Observation and Research Station, Sansha, China

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Yunkai HeaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
bSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China
eXisha Marine Environmental National Observation and Research Station, Sansha, China

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Shuqun CaiaState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
bSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China
fInstitution of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

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Abstract

Tide-induced near-inertial internal waves (NIWs) are generated by tide–topography interaction and are energized by internal tides through triadic resonant interaction of internal waves. They are located above topography and could be in close contact with wind-induced NIWs when the topography is a tall ridge, like in the Luzon Strait of the northern South China Sea (SCS). A natural question arises as to whether there is significant interaction between wind- and tide-induced NIWs. By using moored velocity observations, a satellite-tracked surface drifter dataset, and idealized numerical simulations, we find that in the presence of tide-induced NIWs, the wind can inject slightly more near-inertial energy (NIE), while in the presence of wind-induced NIWs, significantly more tidal energy is transferred to NIWs. Thus, wind- and tide-induced NIWs can mutually enhance each other, producing more NIE than a linear superposition of that generated by wind and tide forcing alone. Increasing wind intensity and tidal excursion lead to saturation of NIE enhancement, while a taller ridge leads to stronger enhancement. The high mixed layer NIE near Luzon Strait is mostly generated by the wind, while the mutual enhancement between wind- and tide-induced NIWs can further enhance this pattern. The interaction between wind- and tide-induced NIWs leads to an enhancement of 25% more NIE. If tide-induced NIWs are neglected, as is usually the case in the estimation of NIE, the total NIE will be underestimated by almost 50%. This might imply that tide-induced NIWs are important for the energetics of NIWs in Luzon Strait.

Significance Statement

Near-inertial internal waves (NIWs) usually occupy the most kinetic energy of internal waves and contribute significantly to ocean mixing. Near the surface they are usually generated by wind forcing, but near the bottom they can be generated by geostrophic or tidal flow interacting with topography. Above the tall ridge in Luzon Strait, wind- and tide-induced NIWs are in close contact, leading to potential interactions. It is found that these NIWs can mutually enhance each other, with most of the additional near-inertial energy (NIE) coming from the tides. If tide-induced NIWs are neglected, the total NIE will be underestimated by almost 50%. This suggests that tide-induced NIWs are important for the energetics of NIWs in Luzon Strait.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Shuqun Cai, caisq@scsio.ac.cn; Jiexin Xu, manglo.xu@163.com

Abstract

Tide-induced near-inertial internal waves (NIWs) are generated by tide–topography interaction and are energized by internal tides through triadic resonant interaction of internal waves. They are located above topography and could be in close contact with wind-induced NIWs when the topography is a tall ridge, like in the Luzon Strait of the northern South China Sea (SCS). A natural question arises as to whether there is significant interaction between wind- and tide-induced NIWs. By using moored velocity observations, a satellite-tracked surface drifter dataset, and idealized numerical simulations, we find that in the presence of tide-induced NIWs, the wind can inject slightly more near-inertial energy (NIE), while in the presence of wind-induced NIWs, significantly more tidal energy is transferred to NIWs. Thus, wind- and tide-induced NIWs can mutually enhance each other, producing more NIE than a linear superposition of that generated by wind and tide forcing alone. Increasing wind intensity and tidal excursion lead to saturation of NIE enhancement, while a taller ridge leads to stronger enhancement. The high mixed layer NIE near Luzon Strait is mostly generated by the wind, while the mutual enhancement between wind- and tide-induced NIWs can further enhance this pattern. The interaction between wind- and tide-induced NIWs leads to an enhancement of 25% more NIE. If tide-induced NIWs are neglected, as is usually the case in the estimation of NIE, the total NIE will be underestimated by almost 50%. This might imply that tide-induced NIWs are important for the energetics of NIWs in Luzon Strait.

Significance Statement

Near-inertial internal waves (NIWs) usually occupy the most kinetic energy of internal waves and contribute significantly to ocean mixing. Near the surface they are usually generated by wind forcing, but near the bottom they can be generated by geostrophic or tidal flow interacting with topography. Above the tall ridge in Luzon Strait, wind- and tide-induced NIWs are in close contact, leading to potential interactions. It is found that these NIWs can mutually enhance each other, with most of the additional near-inertial energy (NIE) coming from the tides. If tide-induced NIWs are neglected, the total NIE will be underestimated by almost 50%. This suggests that tide-induced NIWs are important for the energetics of NIWs in Luzon Strait.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Shuqun Cai, caisq@scsio.ac.cn; Jiexin Xu, manglo.xu@163.com
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