Direct Evidence of Standing Internal Tide West of the Luzon Strait Observed by a Large-Scale Observation Array

Min Wang aSchool of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
bState Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, China

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Xiao-Hua Zhu aSchool of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
bState Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, China
cSouthern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai, China

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Hua Zheng aSchool of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
bState Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, China

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Juntian Chen bState Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, China

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Zhao-Jun Liu bState Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, China

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Qiang Ren dKey Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
eCenter for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China

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Yansong Liu dKey Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
eCenter for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
fMarine Dynamic Process and Climate Function Laboratory, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China

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Feng Nan dKey Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
eCenter for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
fMarine Dynamic Process and Climate Function Laboratory, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China

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Fei Yu dKey Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
eCenter for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
fMarine Dynamic Process and Climate Function Laboratory, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China
gUniversity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Qiang Li hGraduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, China

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Abstract

Using a large-scale observation array of 27 simultaneous pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs), the standing wave features of the mode-1 M2 internal tide west of the Luzon Strait (LS) were identified. These features exhibited nonmonotonic spatial phase shifts and half-wavelength amplitude modulation, resulting in spatially varying amplitudes under PIES observations, which have not been previously observed in field observations west of the LS. Satellite altimeter measurements also identified standing-wave patterns consistent with the PIES observations. These patterns emanated from interference between the northwestward and southeastward beams from the LS and the slope of the southern Taiwan Strait, respectively. Near the LS, the two beams superimposed into partial standing waves, whereas the superimposed waves tended to become perfect standing waves near the slope of the southern Taiwan Strait. The nodes and antinodes of the wave shifted under the influence of an anticyclonic eddy. The eddy-induced background current modified the phase speed of the internal tides, and the superimposed standing-wave nodes and antinodes deflected clockwise. The node shifted during three anticyclonic eddy events, and two stations on two sides of the wave node showed opposite variations in amplitude.

Significance Statement

The internal tidal constituent (M2) propagating in opposite directions can result in standing waves, which have been frequently observed in global oceans but were absent west of the Luzon Strait (LS). Our observations (based on a large-scale array west of the LS) discovered a standing M2 internal tide, which stems from interference between the northwestward beams emanating from the LS and southeastward beams from the slope of the southern Taiwan Strait. Anticyclonic eddies play important roles in adjusting the amplitude of internal tides by deflecting the standing-wave nodes and antinodes clockwise. The study facilitates the understanding of the energy distribution and mixing processes west of the LS and provides a fresh perspective on the dynamic relationship between mesoscale perturbations and internal tides.

© 2023 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Xiao-Hua Zhu, xhzhu@sio.org.cn

Abstract

Using a large-scale observation array of 27 simultaneous pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs), the standing wave features of the mode-1 M2 internal tide west of the Luzon Strait (LS) were identified. These features exhibited nonmonotonic spatial phase shifts and half-wavelength amplitude modulation, resulting in spatially varying amplitudes under PIES observations, which have not been previously observed in field observations west of the LS. Satellite altimeter measurements also identified standing-wave patterns consistent with the PIES observations. These patterns emanated from interference between the northwestward and southeastward beams from the LS and the slope of the southern Taiwan Strait, respectively. Near the LS, the two beams superimposed into partial standing waves, whereas the superimposed waves tended to become perfect standing waves near the slope of the southern Taiwan Strait. The nodes and antinodes of the wave shifted under the influence of an anticyclonic eddy. The eddy-induced background current modified the phase speed of the internal tides, and the superimposed standing-wave nodes and antinodes deflected clockwise. The node shifted during three anticyclonic eddy events, and two stations on two sides of the wave node showed opposite variations in amplitude.

Significance Statement

The internal tidal constituent (M2) propagating in opposite directions can result in standing waves, which have been frequently observed in global oceans but were absent west of the Luzon Strait (LS). Our observations (based on a large-scale array west of the LS) discovered a standing M2 internal tide, which stems from interference between the northwestward beams emanating from the LS and southeastward beams from the slope of the southern Taiwan Strait. Anticyclonic eddies play important roles in adjusting the amplitude of internal tides by deflecting the standing-wave nodes and antinodes clockwise. The study facilitates the understanding of the energy distribution and mixing processes west of the LS and provides a fresh perspective on the dynamic relationship between mesoscale perturbations and internal tides.

© 2023 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Xiao-Hua Zhu, xhzhu@sio.org.cn
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