Effect of wave-dependent mechanisms on storm surge and current simulation during three extreme weather systems

Dongxue Mo aKey Laboratory of Ocean Observation and Forecasting, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
bLaboratory for Ocean Dynamics and Climate, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China
cCollege of Oceanography, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China

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Po Hu aKey Laboratory of Ocean Observation and Forecasting, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
bLaboratory for Ocean Dynamics and Climate, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China
cCollege of Oceanography, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China

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Jian Li dNorth China Sea Marine Forecasting Center of State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao, China

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Yijun Hou aKey Laboratory of Ocean Observation and Forecasting, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
bLaboratory for Ocean Dynamics and Climate, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China
cCollege of Oceanography, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China

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Shuiqing Li aKey Laboratory of Ocean Observation and Forecasting, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
bLaboratory for Ocean Dynamics and Climate, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China
cCollege of Oceanography, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China

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Abstract

The wave effect is crucial to coastal ocean dynamics, but the roles of the associated wave-dependent mechanisms, such as the wave-enhanced surface stress, wave-enhanced bottom stress, and three-dimensional wave force, are not yet fully understood. In addition, the parameterizations of each mechanism vary and need to be assessed. In this study, a coupled wave-current model based on the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) model system was established to identify the effect of the wave-dependent mechanism on storm surges and currents during three typical extreme weather systems, i.e., cold wave, extratropical cyclone, and typhoon systems, in a semi-enclosed sea. The effects of the three coupled mechanisms on the surface or bottom stress, in terms of both the magnitude and direction, were investigated and quantified separately based on numerical sensitive analysis. A total of seven parameterizations is used to evaluate these mechanisms, resulting in significant variations in the storm surge and current vectors. The similarities and differences of the wave-induced surge and wave-induced current among the various mechanisms were summarized. The change in the surface stress and bottom stress and the excessive momentum flux due to waves were found to mainly occur in shallow nearshore regions. Optimal choice of the combination of parameterization schemes was obtained through comparison with measured data. The wave-induced current in the open waters with a deep-water depth and complex terrain could generate cyclonic or anticyclonic current vorticities, the number and intensity of which always increased with the enhanced strength and rotation of the wind field increased.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This is an Author Accepted Manuscript distributed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Dongxue Mo, dongxuemo@qdio.ac.cn; Shuiqing Li, lishuiqing@qdio.ac.cn

Abstract

The wave effect is crucial to coastal ocean dynamics, but the roles of the associated wave-dependent mechanisms, such as the wave-enhanced surface stress, wave-enhanced bottom stress, and three-dimensional wave force, are not yet fully understood. In addition, the parameterizations of each mechanism vary and need to be assessed. In this study, a coupled wave-current model based on the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) model system was established to identify the effect of the wave-dependent mechanism on storm surges and currents during three typical extreme weather systems, i.e., cold wave, extratropical cyclone, and typhoon systems, in a semi-enclosed sea. The effects of the three coupled mechanisms on the surface or bottom stress, in terms of both the magnitude and direction, were investigated and quantified separately based on numerical sensitive analysis. A total of seven parameterizations is used to evaluate these mechanisms, resulting in significant variations in the storm surge and current vectors. The similarities and differences of the wave-induced surge and wave-induced current among the various mechanisms were summarized. The change in the surface stress and bottom stress and the excessive momentum flux due to waves were found to mainly occur in shallow nearshore regions. Optimal choice of the combination of parameterization schemes was obtained through comparison with measured data. The wave-induced current in the open waters with a deep-water depth and complex terrain could generate cyclonic or anticyclonic current vorticities, the number and intensity of which always increased with the enhanced strength and rotation of the wind field increased.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This is an Author Accepted Manuscript distributed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Dongxue Mo, dongxuemo@qdio.ac.cn; Shuiqing Li, lishuiqing@qdio.ac.cn
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