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Exploring the Impact of Climate Change on the Outbreak of Early Twenty-First-Century Violence in the Middle East and North Africa and the Potential of Permaculture as an Effective Adaptation

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  • 1 Sustainable Rural Community Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
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Abstract

Considering the ongoing violence taking place in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, especially within Syria and Iraq, it is essential to provide an accurate explanation of causes in order to develop an adaptation model. In addition to discussing the climate-related concerns associated with the emergence of violence, this paper considers how tackling the environmental crisis in MENA will improve living standards and lead toward sustainable development. As a supplement to a range of secondary data, a small selection of individuals who have escaped the recent conflicts have been interviewed. Because this potential sample pool is small, and the ongoing violence precludes fieldwork in the MENA region, this study provides only a preliminary exploration of the topic. A more detailed study is desirable, if and when it is feasible to conduct such research. As a potential adaptation to climate change in the region, permaculture is presented through illustrations of its capabilities for redressing some of the underlying causes of violence in the MENA region.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: M. Elyas Karim, c3190762@uon.edu.au

Abstract

Considering the ongoing violence taking place in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, especially within Syria and Iraq, it is essential to provide an accurate explanation of causes in order to develop an adaptation model. In addition to discussing the climate-related concerns associated with the emergence of violence, this paper considers how tackling the environmental crisis in MENA will improve living standards and lead toward sustainable development. As a supplement to a range of secondary data, a small selection of individuals who have escaped the recent conflicts have been interviewed. Because this potential sample pool is small, and the ongoing violence precludes fieldwork in the MENA region, this study provides only a preliminary exploration of the topic. A more detailed study is desirable, if and when it is feasible to conduct such research. As a potential adaptation to climate change in the region, permaculture is presented through illustrations of its capabilities for redressing some of the underlying causes of violence in the MENA region.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: M. Elyas Karim, c3190762@uon.edu.au
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