• Aggarwal, P. K., 2008: Global climate change and Indian agriculture: Impacts, adaptation and mitigation. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 78, 911919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balwinder-Singh, E. Humphreys, Sudhir-Yadav, and D. S. Gaydon, 2015: Options for increasing the productivity of the rice–wheat system of north-west India while reducing groundwater depletion. Part I. Rice variety duration, sowing date and inclusion of mungbean. Field Crops Res., 173, 6880, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2014.11.018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balwinder-Singh, A. J. McDonald, V. Kumar, S. P. Poonia, A. K. Srivastava, and R. K. Malik, 2019: Taking the climate risk out of transplanted and direct seeded rice: Insights from dynamic simulation in eastern India. Field Crops Res., 239, 92103, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2019.05.014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Basu, S., S. K. Dutta, S. Maji, P. K. Chakraborty, S. Jena, R. Nath, and P. K. Chakraborty, 2014: Photosynthetically active radiation variation across transplanting dates and its effect on rice yield in tropical sub-humid environment. Oryza, 51, 241246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brechin, S. R., and M. Bhandari, 2011: Perceptions of climate change worldwide. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev.: Climate Change, 2, 871885, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cabangon, R. J., T. P. Tuong, and N. B. Abdullah, 2002: Comparing water input and water productivity of transplanted and direct-seeded rice production systems. Agric. Water Manage., 57, 1131, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00048-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chakraborty, D., V. K. Sehgal, R. Dhakar, D. K. Das, and R. N. Sahoo, 2018: Trends and change-point in satellite derived phenology parameters in major wheat growing regions of north India during the last three decades. J. Indian Soc. Remote Sens., 46, 5968, https://doi.org/10.1007/S12524-017-0684-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chandna, P., D. P Hodson, U. P Singh, A. N Singh, A. K Gosain, R. N Sahoo, and R. Gupta, 2004: Increasing the Productivity of Underutilized Lands by Targeting Resource Conserving Technologies—A GIS/Remote Sensing Approach: A Case Study of Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh, in the Eastern Gangetic Plains. CIMMYT, 41 pp.

  • Chatterjee, R., and R. R. Purohit, 2009: Estimation of replenishable groundwater resources of India and their status of utilization. Curr. Sci., 96, 15811591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chaudhary, S. K., J. P. Singh, and S. Jha, 2011: Effect of integrated nitrogen management on yield, quality and nutrient uptake of rice (Oryza sativa) under different dates of planting. Indian J. Agron., 56, 228231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Choubey, N. K., S. S. Kolhe, and R. S. Tripathy, 2001: Relative performance of cyhalofop-butyl for weed control in direct-seeded rice. Indian J. Weed Sci., 33, 132135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Agriculture, 2019: Wheat package of practices. Government of Bihar, http://krishi.bih.nic.in/.

  • Directorate of Census Operations, Bihar, 2011: District Census Handbook Part A: Bhojpur. Bihar Directorate of Census Operations, 828 pp., https://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/DCHB_A/10/1029_PART_A_DCHB_BHOJPUR.pdf.

  • Gopal, R., and et al. , 2010: Direct dry seeded rice production technology and weed management in rice based systems. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Tech. Bull., 31 pp.

  • Hira, G. S., and K. L. Khera, 2000: Water resource management in Punjab under rice-wheat production system. Res. Bull., 1, 2000.

  • Hobbs, P. R., 2001: Tillage and crop establishment in South Asian rice-wheat systems: Present practices and future options. J. Crop Prod., 4, 122, https://doi.org/10.1300/J144v04n01_01.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hobbs, P. R., R. Gupta, R. K. Jat, and R. K. Malik, 2019: Conservation agriculture in the Indo-Gangetic plains of India: Past, present and future. Exp. Agric., 55, 339357, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479717000424.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jain, M., S. Naeem, B. Orlove, V. Modi, and R. S. DeFries, 2015: Understanding the causes and consequences of differential decision-making in adaptation research: Adapting to a delayed monsoon onset in Gujarat, India. Global Environ. Change, 31, 98109, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.12.008.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jain, M., A. Srivastava, R. Joon, A. McDonald, K. Royal, M. Lisaius, and D. Lobell, 2016: Mapping smallholder wheat yields and sowing dates using micro-satellite data. Remote Sens., 8, 860, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8100860.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jain, M., B. Singh, A. A. K. Srivastava, R. K. Malik, A. J. McDonald, and D. B. Lobell, 2017: Using satellite data to identify the causes of and potential solutions for yield gaps in India’s Wheat Belt. Environ. Res. Lett., 12, 094011, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8228.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jalota, S. K., K. B. Singh, G. B. S. Chahal, R. K. Gupta, S. Chakraborty, A. Sood, S. S. Ray, and S. Panigrahy, 2009: Integrated effect of transplanting date, cultivar and irrigation on yield, water saving and water productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Indian Punjab: Field and simulation study. Agric. Water Manage., 96, 10961104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.02.005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalra, N., and et al. , 2008: Effect of increasing temperature on yield of some winter crops in northwest India. Curr. Sci., 94, 8288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kazmi, S. I., M. W. Ertsen, and M. R. Asi, 2012: The impact of conjunctive use of canal and tube well water in Lagar irrigated area, Pakistan. Phys. Chem. Earth, 47–48, 8698, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2012.01.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keil, A., A. D’Souza, and A. McDonald, 2015: Zero-tillage as a pathway for sustainable wheat intensification in the eastern Indo-Gangetic plains: Does it work in farmers’ fields? Food Secur., 7, 9831001, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0492-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumar, N. S., P. K. Aggarwal, D. N. S. Rani, R. Saxena, N. Chauhan, and S. Jain, 2014: Vulnerability of wheat production to climate change in India. Climate Res., 59, 173187, https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01212.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ladha, J. K., and et al. , 2003: How extensive are yield declines in long-term rice-wheat experiments in Asia? Field Crops Res., 81, 159180, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(02)00219-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lantican, M. A., R. M. Lampayan, S. I. Bhuiyan, and M. K. Yadav, 1999: Determinants of improving productivity of dry-seeded rice in rainfed lowlands. Exp. Agric., 35, 127140, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479799002069.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leiserowitz, A. A., 2005: American risk perceptions: Is climate change dangerous? Risk Anal., 25, 14331442, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2005.00690.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lobell, D. B., W. Schlenker, and J. Costa-Roberts, 2011: Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science, 333, 616620, https://doi.org/10.1126/SCIENCE.1204531.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lobell, D. B., J. I. Ortiz-Monasterio, A. M. Sibley, and V. S. Sohu, 2013: Satellite detection of earlier wheat sowing in India and implications for yield trends. Agric. Syst., 115, 137143, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2012.09.003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, 2011: Brief industrial profile of Bhojpur District. Government of India Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Rep., 13 pp., http://dcmsme.gov.in/dips/Bhojpur_bihar.pdf.

  • Moorthy, B. T. S., and S. Saha, 2002: Evaluation of pre-and post-emergence herbicides for their effects on weeds and upland direct-seeded rice. Indian J. Weed Sci., 34, 197200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mukherji, A., S. Rawat, and T. Shah, 2013: Major insights from India’s minor irrigation censuses: 1986-87 to 2006-07. Econ. Polit. Wkly., 48, 115124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ortiz-Monasterio, R. J. I., S. S. Dhillon, and R. A. Fischer, 1994: Date of sowing effects on grain yield and yield components of irrigated spring wheat cultivars and relationships with radiation and temperature in Ludhiana, India. Field Crops Res., 37, 169184, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(94)90096-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pandey, S., M. Mortimer, L. Wade, T. P. Tuong, K. Lopez, and B. Hardy, 2002: Economics of direct seeding in Asia: Patterns of adoption and research priorities. Direct Seeding: Research Strategies and Opportunities, International Rice Research Institute, 3–14.

  • Pathak, H., N. Jain, and A. Bhatia, 2015: Enhancing resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change. Indian J. Fert., 11, 102115.

  • Rafiq, M. H., R. Ahmad, A. Jabbar, H. Munir, and M. Hussain, 2017: Wheat productivity responses in the rice-based system under different no-till techniques and nitrogen sources. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 24, 21 79721 806, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9813-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rao, B. B., P. S. Chowdary, V. M. Sandeep, V. P. Pramod, and V. U. M. Rao, 2015: Spatial analysis of the sensitivity of wheat yields to temperature in India. Agric. Meteor., 200, 192202, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.09.023.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, M. P., J. Pietragalla, and H. J. Bruan, 2008: International Symposium on Wheat Yield Potential: Challenges to International Wheat Breeding. M. P. Reynolds, J. Pietragalla, and H.-J. Braun, Eds., CIMMYT, 197 pp., https://repository.cimmyt.org/bitstream/handle/10883/1259/89259.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

  • Sharma, A. R., 1997: Effect of integrated weed management and nitrogen fertilization on the performance of rice under flood-prone lowland conditions. J. Agric. Sci., 129, 409418, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859697004887.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, M. K., R. Thakur, U. N. Verma, R. R. Upasani, and S. K. Pal, 2000: Effect of planting time and nitrogen on production potential of basmati rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars in Bihar plateau. Indian J. Agron., 45, 300303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, R. P., 2004: Groundwater management strategies, Rohtas District, Bihar, India. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., 63, 247253, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-003-0219-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, S., J. K. Ladha, R. K. Gupta, L. Bhushan, A. N. Rao, B. Sivaprasad, and P. P. Singh, 2007: Evaluation of mulching, intercropping with Sesbania and herbicide use for weed management in dry-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). Crop Prot., 26, 518524, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2006.04.024.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, S., R. S. Chhokar, R. Gopal, J. K. Ladha, R. K. Gupta, V. Kumar, and M. Singh, 2009: Integrated weed management: A key to success for direct-seeded rice in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Integrated Crop and Resource Management in the Rice-Wheat System of South Asia, International Rice Research Institute, 261–278.

  • Singh, Y., V. P. Singh, G. Singh, D. S. Yadav, R. K. P. Sinha, D. E. Johnson, and A. M. Mortimer, 2011: The implications of land preparation, crop establishment method and weed management on rice yield variation in the rice–wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic plains. Field Crops Res., 121, 6474, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2010.11.012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sivapragasam, C., G. Vasudevan, J. Maran, C. Bose, S. Kaza, and N. Ganesh, 2009: Modeling evaporation-seepage losses for reservoir water balance in semi-arid regions. Water Resour. Manage., 23, 853867, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-008-9303-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Timsina, J., and D. J. Connor, 2001: Productivity and management of rice–wheat cropping systems: Issues and challenges. Field Crops Res., 69, 93132, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(00)00143-X.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tripathi, S. C., A. D. Mongia, R. K. Sharma, A. S. Sharma, and R. S. Chhokar, 2005: Wheat productivity at different sowing dates in various agro-climatic zones of India. SAARC J. Agric., 3, 191201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tuong, T. P., A. K. Singh, J. D. Siopongco, and L. J. Wade, 2000: Constraints to high yield of dry-seeded rice in the rainy season of a humid tropic environment. Plant Prod. Sci., 3, 164172, https://doi.org/10.1626/pps.3.164.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Umashaanker, M., 2019: Implications of monsoon cropping decisions on wheat sowing dates in Bihar, Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains. M.S. thesis, School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, 28 pp.

  • Vyas, S., R. Nigam, N. K. Patel, and S. Panigrahy, 2013: Extracting regional pattern of wheat sowing dates using multispectral and high temporal observations from Indian geostationary satellite. J. Indian Soc. Remote Sens., 41, 855864, https://doi.org/10.1007/S12524-013-0266-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 262 262 50
Full Text Views 25 25 5
PDF Downloads 26 26 4

Factors Constraining Timely Sowing of Wheat as an Adaptation to Climate Change in Eastern India

View More View Less
  • 1 School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • | 2 Department of Earth System Science and Center on Food Security and the Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, California
  • | 3 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), New Delhi, India
  • | 4 Soil and Crop Sciences Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

ABSTRACT

Climate change is predicted to negatively impact wheat yields across northern India, primarily as a result of increased heat stress during grain filling at the end of the growing season. One way that farmers may adapt is by sowing their wheat earlier to avoid this terminal heat stress. However, many farmers in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) sow their wheat later than is optimal, likely leading to yield reductions. There is limited documentation of why farmers sow their wheat late and the potential constraints to early sowing. Our study uses data from 256 farmers in Arrah, Bihar, a region in the eastern IGP with late wheat sowing, to identify the socioeconomic, biophysical, perceptional, and management factors influencing wheat-sowing-date decisions. Despite widespread awareness of climate change, we found that farmers did not adopt strategies to adapt to warming temperatures and that wheat-sowing dates were not influenced by perceptions of climate change. Instead, we found that the most important factors influencing wheat-sowing-date decisions were irrigation type and cropping decisions during the monsoon season prior to the winter wheat growing season. Specifically, we found that using canal irrigation instead of groundwater irrigation, planting rice in the monsoon season, transplanting rice, and transplanting rice later during the monsoon season were all associated with delayed wheat sowing. These results suggest that there are system constraints to sowing wheat on time, and these factors must be addressed if farmers are to adapt wheat-sowing-date decisions in the face of warming temperatures.

Corresponding author: Meha Jain, mehajain@umich.edu

ABSTRACT

Climate change is predicted to negatively impact wheat yields across northern India, primarily as a result of increased heat stress during grain filling at the end of the growing season. One way that farmers may adapt is by sowing their wheat earlier to avoid this terminal heat stress. However, many farmers in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) sow their wheat later than is optimal, likely leading to yield reductions. There is limited documentation of why farmers sow their wheat late and the potential constraints to early sowing. Our study uses data from 256 farmers in Arrah, Bihar, a region in the eastern IGP with late wheat sowing, to identify the socioeconomic, biophysical, perceptional, and management factors influencing wheat-sowing-date decisions. Despite widespread awareness of climate change, we found that farmers did not adopt strategies to adapt to warming temperatures and that wheat-sowing dates were not influenced by perceptions of climate change. Instead, we found that the most important factors influencing wheat-sowing-date decisions were irrigation type and cropping decisions during the monsoon season prior to the winter wheat growing season. Specifically, we found that using canal irrigation instead of groundwater irrigation, planting rice in the monsoon season, transplanting rice, and transplanting rice later during the monsoon season were all associated with delayed wheat sowing. These results suggest that there are system constraints to sowing wheat on time, and these factors must be addressed if farmers are to adapt wheat-sowing-date decisions in the face of warming temperatures.

Corresponding author: Meha Jain, mehajain@umich.edu
Save