• An, Z. S., 2000: The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quat. Sci. Rev., 19, 171187, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00060-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bai, Y., and J. K. Kung, 2011: Climate shocks and Sino-nomadic conflict. Rev. Econ. Stat., 93, 970981, https://doi.org/10.1162/REST_a_00106.

  • Barfield, T. J., 1989: The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China. Blackwell, 325 pp.

  • Benzie, M., T. R. Carter, H. Carlsen, and R. Taylor, 2019: Cross-border climate change impacts: Implications for the European union. Reg. Environ. Change, 19, 763776, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-018-1436-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buckley, B. M., and et al. , 2010: Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 67486752, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910827107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Büntgen, U., and et al. , 2011: 2500 years of European climate variability and human susceptibility. Science, 331, 578582, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1197175.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butzer, K. W., 2012: Collapse, environment, and society. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 36323639, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1114845109.

  • Chinese Military History Writing Group, 2003: Chronology of Wars in Chinese History (in Chinese). Chinese People’s Liberation Army Publishing House, 1178 pp.

  • Cui, J., and H. Chang, 2013: The possible climate impact on the collapse of an ancient urban city in Mu Us Desert, China. Reg. Environ. Change, 13, 353364, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-012-0345-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cui, M. D., 2007: General History of Historical China’s Intermarriage for Pacification (in Chinese). People’s Publishing House, 657 pp.

  • Cui, Z. J., and C. Q. Song, 1992: Holocene periglacial processes and environmental changes in the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, China. Permafr. Periglac. Process., 3, 5562, https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.3430030108.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diaz, D., and F. Moore, 2017: Quantifying the economic risks of climate change. Nat. Climate Change, 7, 774782, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3411.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fang, J. Q., and G. Liu, 1992: Relationship between climatic change and the nomadic southward migrations in eastern Asia during historical times. Climatic Change, 22, 151168, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00142964.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fang, X. Q., Y. Su, J. Yin, and J. C. Teng, 2015: Transmission of climate change impacts from temperature change to grain harvests, famines and peasant uprisings in the historical China (in Chinese). Sci. China Earth Sci., 45, 831842, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-015-5075-9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ge, Q. S., J. Y. Zheng, X. Q. Fang, Z. M. Man, X. Q. Zhang, P. Y. Zhang, and W. Q. Wang, 2002: Temperature changes of winter-half-year in eastern China during the past 2000 years. Quat. Sci., 22, 166173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ge, Q. S., Z. X. Hao, J. Y. Zheng, and X. M. Shao, 2013: Temperature changes over the past 2000 yr in China and comparison with the Northern Hemisphere. Climate Past, 9, 11531160, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-9-1153-2013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haug, G. H., D. Günther, L. C. Peterson, D. M. Sigman, K. A. Hughen, and B. Aeschlimann, 2003: Climate and the collapse of Maya civilization. Science, 299, 17311735, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1080444.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, F. N., K. Li, and H. L. Liu, 2010: The influence of historical climate change on agriculture in ancient China. Geogr. Res., 29, 22892297, https://doi.org/10.11821/yj2010120018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, W. G., 2003: Complementariness and unbalanced demand in economy between the nomads and the farmers in ancient China (in Chinese). J. Northwest Norm. Univ. Soc. Sci., 40, 3238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinsch, B., 1988: Climatic change and history in China. J. Asian Hist., 22, 131159.

  • Hu, T. Q., 2002: Discuss the economic fragility of the northern nomadic nationalities in ancient China (in Chinese). Soc. Sci. Ningxia, 5, 8893.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, L., 1985: Several theoretical issues on national relations in Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties (in Chinese). Hist. Res., 3, 8699, https://doi.org/CNKI:SUN:LSYJ.0.1985-03-005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lattimore, O., 1938: The geographical factor in Mongol history. Geogr. J., 91 (1), 116, https://doi.org/10.2307/1787812.

  • Liu, L., Y. Su, and X. Q. Fang, 2016: Wars between farming and nomadic groups from Western Han dynasty to Qing dynasty in north China and relationship with temperature change (in Chinese). J. Beijing Norm. Univ. Nat. Sci., 52, 450457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X. H., D. H. Qin, X. M. Shao, T. Chen, and J. W. Ren, 2004: Tree-ring records of temperature changes in the central Qilian Mountains over the past millennium (in Chinese). Sci. China., 34D, 8995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Massey, E., and D. Huitema, 2013: The emergence of climate change adaptation as a policy field: The case of England. Reg. Environ. Change, 13, 341352, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-012-0341-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moser, S. C., and J. A. F. Hart, 2015: The long arm of climate change: Societal teleconnections and the future of climate change impacts studies. Climatic Change, 129, 1326, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1328-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nunn, P. D., W. Aalbersberg, S. Lata, and M. Gwilliam, 2014: Beyond the core: Community governance for climate-change adaptation in peripheral parts of Pacific Island countries. Reg. Environ. Change, 14, 221235, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-013-0486-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pederson, N., A. E. Hessl, N. Baatarbileg, K. J. Anchukaitis and N. D. Cosmo, 2014: Pluvials, droughts, the Mongol Empire, and modern Mongolia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, 43754379, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1318677111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pei, Q., and D. D. Zhang, 2014: Long-term relationship between climate change and nomadic migration in historical China. Ecol. Soc., 19, 6873, https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06528-190268.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qi, R. Y., Y. Y. Li, Y. L. Wei, and L. X. Zhao, 2011: Relationship between herbage yields and climate in pastoral areas of Qinghai in recent decade (in Chinese). Qixiang Keji, 39, 369373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scheffran, J., and A. Battaglini, 2011: Climate and conflicts: The security risks of global warming. Reg. Environ. Change, 11, 2739, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-010-0175-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spijkers, J., and W. J. Boonstra, 2017: Environmental change and social conflict: The northeast Atlantic mackerel dispute. Reg. Environ. Change, 17, 18351851, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-017-1150-4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Su, Y., L. Liu, X. Q. Fang, and Y. N. Ma, 2016: The relationship between climate change and wars waged between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han dynasty to the Tang dynasty period. Climate Past, 12, 137150, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-137-2016.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tian, J. Z., 2011: The Chronicle of Historical China’s Ethnic Relationship (in Chinese). Social Sciences Academic Press, 788 pp.

  • Tol, R. S. J., and S. Wagner, 2010: Climate change and violent conflict in Europe over the last millennium. Climatic Change, 99, 6579, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-009-9659-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Twitchett, D., and M. Loewe, Eds., 1986: The Ch’in and Han Empires, B.C.221-A.D.220, Vol. 1, The Cambridge History of China, Cambridge University Press, 1024 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, E. C., 2009: Relationship between the local regimes of western regions and the Central Plains dynasty in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties (in Chinese). Acad. China, 4, 232236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, H. C., 1996: The relationship between the migrating south of the nomadic nationalities in north China and the climate changes (in Chinese). Dili Kexue, 16, 274279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, W. X., Q. S. Ge, J. Y. Zheng, Y. Zhou, and Y. Hu, 2009: Possible role of climate change in the Mongol westward conquests. Quat. Sci., 29, 724734.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xia, Y. M., 1996: Study of record of spore-pollen in high moor peat and development and successive process of peat in Da and Xiao Hinggan Mountains (in Chinese). Sci. Geogr. Sin., 16, 337344, https://doi.org/CNKI:SUN:DLKX.0.1996-04-007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, W. D., and D. J. Yu, 2010: Analysis of the impact of climate change on the alpine grassland yield in Xinghai County (in Chinese). Anim. Husb. Feed Sci., 31, 166168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ye, Y., X. Fang, and M. A. U. Khan, 2012: Migration and reclamation in Northeast China in response to climatic disasters in North China over the past 300 years. Reg. Environ. Change, 12, 193206, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-011-0245-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, D., C. Y. Jim, C. S. Lin, Y. Q. He, and F. Li, 2005: Climate change, social unrest and dynastic transition in ancient China. Chin. Sci. Bull., 50, 137144, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02897517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, D. D., H. F. Lee, C. Wang, B. S. Li, Q. Pei, J. Zhang, and Y. L. An, 2011: The causality analysis of climate change and large-scale human crisis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108, 17 29617 301, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1104268108.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J. C., 1982: Possible impacts of climatic variation on agriculture in China. Geogr. Res., 1, 815.

  • Zhao, Y., and W. H. Yu, 2013: Combination of military and production, resource allocation and size of the nomad and farming nationality (in Chinese). Res. Inst. Econ., 137150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, J. Y., L. B. Xiao, X. Q. Fang, Z. X. Hao, Q. S. Ge, and B. B. Li, 2014: How climate change impacted the collapse of the Ming dynasty. Climatic Change, 127, 169182, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1244-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 142 142 39
Full Text Views 21 21 4
PDF Downloads 29 29 6

The Relationship between Temperature Changes and Peacemaking Events between Farming and Nomadic Groups in Northern China over the Past 2000 Years

View More View Less
  • 1 Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
  • | 2 Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disaster, Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Climate change affects relationships between regions. The sequence of peacemaking events between farming and nomadic groups in northern China from the Western Han to the Qing dynasty was constructed based on historical documents. We analyzed the impacts of climate change on ethnic relationships using war and temperature sequence data from previous studies. The main results are as follows: 1) There were 504 peacemaking events between farming and nomadic groups, with an average frequency of 2.4 times per decade. Paying tribute (68.9%) occurred significantly more frequently than intermarriage for pacification (31.1%). The sequences showed different stages. 2) There were more peacemaking events during cold periods and fewer during warm periods. Intermarriage for pacification played a greater role in peacemaking during warm periods, while paying tribute was more important during cold periods. 3) High-incidence stages of war and of peacemaking events alternated. Peacemaking events occurred more frequently during cold periods and wars occurred more frequently during warm periods. 4) During warm periods, farming and nomadic groups had enough power to contend with each other, wars occurred frequently, and intermarriage was often used for peacemaking. During cold periods, agriculture and animal husbandry declined, both sides weakened, and the power difference between them usually increased. Wars rarely occurred, and paying tribute was often used for peacemaking. Ethnic relationships are affected by many factors. As a background factor influencing land productivity, climate indirectly affected conflict-resolution measures between farming and nomadic groups. We can hereby consider ways to manage interregional ethnic relationships under global climate change today.

Significance Statement

Because of a lack of research, this study aims to construct the long-term and high-resolution sequence of peacemaking events between farming and nomadic groups in northern China to depict ethnic relationships with both war and peacemaking and explore how climate change affects them comprehensively. Findings showed that the groups chose war or peacemaking and decided whether the means of peacemaking would be intermarriage for pacification or paying tribute to resolve conflicts of interest according to the power gap influenced by climate change, which could provide a historical reference for dealing with the competition between groups for resources caused by global climate change today. Future work should explore the response mechanisms of ethnic relationships to climate change more comprehensively and deeply.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Yun Su, suyun@bnu.edu.cn

Abstract

Climate change affects relationships between regions. The sequence of peacemaking events between farming and nomadic groups in northern China from the Western Han to the Qing dynasty was constructed based on historical documents. We analyzed the impacts of climate change on ethnic relationships using war and temperature sequence data from previous studies. The main results are as follows: 1) There were 504 peacemaking events between farming and nomadic groups, with an average frequency of 2.4 times per decade. Paying tribute (68.9%) occurred significantly more frequently than intermarriage for pacification (31.1%). The sequences showed different stages. 2) There were more peacemaking events during cold periods and fewer during warm periods. Intermarriage for pacification played a greater role in peacemaking during warm periods, while paying tribute was more important during cold periods. 3) High-incidence stages of war and of peacemaking events alternated. Peacemaking events occurred more frequently during cold periods and wars occurred more frequently during warm periods. 4) During warm periods, farming and nomadic groups had enough power to contend with each other, wars occurred frequently, and intermarriage was often used for peacemaking. During cold periods, agriculture and animal husbandry declined, both sides weakened, and the power difference between them usually increased. Wars rarely occurred, and paying tribute was often used for peacemaking. Ethnic relationships are affected by many factors. As a background factor influencing land productivity, climate indirectly affected conflict-resolution measures between farming and nomadic groups. We can hereby consider ways to manage interregional ethnic relationships under global climate change today.

Significance Statement

Because of a lack of research, this study aims to construct the long-term and high-resolution sequence of peacemaking events between farming and nomadic groups in northern China to depict ethnic relationships with both war and peacemaking and explore how climate change affects them comprehensively. Findings showed that the groups chose war or peacemaking and decided whether the means of peacemaking would be intermarriage for pacification or paying tribute to resolve conflicts of interest according to the power gap influenced by climate change, which could provide a historical reference for dealing with the competition between groups for resources caused by global climate change today. Future work should explore the response mechanisms of ethnic relationships to climate change more comprehensively and deeply.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Yun Su, suyun@bnu.edu.cn
Save