• Albrecht, R. I., S. J. Goodman, D. E. Buechler, R. J. Blakeslee, and H. J. Christian, 2016: Where are the lightning hotspots on Earth? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97, 20512068, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00193.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aranguren, D., and H. Torres, 2016: Thunderstorms research in Colombia. Instruments physics and lightning warning systems. 2016 World Meeting on Lightning (WOMEL), Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, ACOFI, http://www.acofi.edu.co/womel/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Daniel-Aranguren.pdf.

  • Archer, E. R., and et al. , 2010: South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas. South Africa Department of Science and Technology, accessed 30 October 2020, http://sarva.dirisa.org/.

  • Ashley, W. S., and C. W. Gilson, 2009: A reassessment of U.S. lightning mortality. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 15011518, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009BAMS2765.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Basher, R., 2006: Global early warning systems for natural hazards: Systematic and people-centred. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc., 364A, 21672182, https://doi.org/10.1098/RSTA.2006.1819.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhavika, B., 2007: The influence of terrain elevation on lightning density in South Africa. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, 84 pp.

  • Blakeslee, R. J., D. M. Mach, M. G. Bateman, and J. C. Bailey, 2014: Seasonal variations in the lightning diurnal cycle and implications for the global electric circuit. Atmos. Res., 135–136, 228243, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.09.023.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bloemink, H., 2013: Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings-an exploration. Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute Doc., 22 pp.

  • Blumenthal, R., E. Trengove, I. R. Jandrell, and G. Saayman, 2012: Lightning medicine in South Africa. S. Afr. Med. J., 102, 625626, https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.5219.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonelli, P., and P. Marcacci, 2008: Thunderstorm nowcasting by means of lightning and radar data: Algorithms and applications in northern Italy. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 11871198, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-8-1187-2008.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cecil, D. J., D. E. Buechler, and R. J. Blakeslee, 2014: Gridded lightning climatology from TRMM-LIS and OTD: Dataset description. Atmos. Res., 135–136, 404414, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.06.028.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cherington, M., J. Walker, M. Boyson, R. Glancy, H. Hedegaard, and S. Clark, 1999: Closing the gap on the actual numbers of lightning casualties and deaths. 11th Conf. on Applied Climatology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 379–380.

  • Christian, and et al. , 2003: Global frequency and distribution of lightning as observed from space by the Optical Transient Detector. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002347.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clulow, A. D., S. Strydom, B. Grant, M. J. Savage, and C. S. Everson, 2018: Integration of a ground-based lightning warning system into a mining operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Wea. Climate Soc., 10, 899912, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-18-0004.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collier, A., A. R. W. Hughes, J. Lichtenberger, and P. Steinbach, 2006: Seasonal and diurnal variation of lightning activity over southern Africa and correlation with European whistler observations. Ann. Geophys., 24, 529542, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-24-529-2006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, M. A., 1998: Disability, not death, is the main problem with lightning injury. NWA Annual Meeting, Oklahoma City, OK, NWA, 1–9, http://uicdemo.pcsnap.com/UserFiles/Servers/Server_442934/File/Research/Disability.pdf.

  • Cooper, M. A., 2012: Whether the medical aspects of lightning injury are different in developing countries. 2012 Int. Conf. on Lightning Protection (ICLP), Vienna, Austria, IEEE, 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICLP.2012.6344288.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, M. A., and R. L. Holle, 2012: Lightning safety campaigns—USA experience. 2012 Int. Conf. on Lightning Protection (ICLP), Vienna, Austria, IEEE, 1–7, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICLP.2012.6344289.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, M. A., and R. L. Holle, 2019a: Locations and activities of lightning casualties. Reducing Lightning Injuries Worldwide, Springer, 83–89.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, M. A., and R. L. Holle, 2019b: Reducing Lightning Injuries Worldwide. Springer, 244 pp.

  • Cooper, M. A., C. J. Andrews, R. L. Holle, R. Blumenthal, N. Navarrete-Aldana, and P. S. Auerbach, 2016: Lightning-related injuries and safety. Auerbach’s Wilderness Medicine, 7th ed. P. S Auerbach, Ed., Elsevier, 71–117.

  • Cummins, K. L., and M. J. Murphy, 2009: An overview of lightning locating systems: History, techniques, and data uses, with an in-depth look at the US NLDN. IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., 51, 499518, https://doi.org/10.1109/TEMC.2009.2023450.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Coning, E., M. Koenig, and J. Olivier, 2011: The combined instability index: A new very-short range convection forecasting technique for southern Africa. Meteor. Appl., 18, 421439, https://doi.org/10.1002/met.234.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Coning, E., M. Gijben, B. Maseko, and L. van Hemert, 2015: Using satellite data to identify and track intense thunderstorms in South and southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci., 111 (7–8), 15, https://doi.org/10.17159/SAJS.2015/20140402.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Environmental Affairs, 2013: Summary for policy-makers. Climate Trends and Scenarios for South Africa, Long-Term Adaptation Scenarios Flagship Research Programme Doc., 13 pp., https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/summary_policymakers_bookV3.pdf.

  • Dlamini, W. M., 2009: Lightning fatalities in Swaziland: 2000–2007. Nat Hazards, 50, 179191, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-008-9331-6.

  • Drapcho, D. L., D. Sisterson, and R. Kumar, 1967: Nitrogen fixation by lightning activity in a thunderstorm. Atmos. Environ., 17, 729734, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(83)90420-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evert, C., and M. Gijben, 2017: Official South African Lightning Ground Flash Density Map 2006 to 2017. Inaugural Earthing Africa Symp. and Exhibition, Johannesburg, South Africa, TERRATECH, 6 pp., https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321162358_Official_South_African_Lightning_Ground_Flash_Density_Map_2006_to_2017.

  • Feng, G., and X. Hu, 2011: Analysis of lightning characteristics in a thunderstorm with gust. Procedia Environ. Sci., 2, 205211, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2011.09.033.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galanaki, E., K. Lagouvardos, V. Kotroni, E. Flaounas, and A. Argiriou, 2018: Thunderstorm climatology in the Mediterranean using cloud-to-ground lightning observations. Atmos. Res., 207, 136144, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.03.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gijben, M., 2012: The lightning climatology of South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci., 108, 4453.

  • Gijben, M., 2016: A lightning threat index for South Africa using numerical weather prediction data. M.S. thesis, Dept of Meteorology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, 125 pp.

  • Gijben, M., L. L. Dyson, and M. T. Loots, 2016: A lightning threat index for South Africa using numerical weather prediction data. Proc. 31st Conf. of the South African Society for Atmospheric Science, Hennops River Valley, South Africa, SAWS, 136–139.

  • Gomes, C., 2011: On the selection and installation of surge protection devices in a TT wiring system for equipment and human safety. Saf. Sci., 49, 861870, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.02.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gomes, C., 2017: Lightning related human risks and risk management. Amer. J. Manage. Sci. Eng., 2, 6579, https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmse.20170205.11.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodman, S. J., 1990: Predicting thunderstorm evolution using ground-based lightning detection networks. Ph.D. thesis, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 193 pp.

  • Gungle, B., and E. P. Krider, 2006: Cloud-to-ground lightning and surface rainfall in warm-season Florida thunderstorms. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D19203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006802.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hewitson, B., M. Tadross, and C. Jack, 2005: Scenarios developed with empirical and regional climate model-based downscaling. In Climate change and water resources in southern Africa: Studies on scenarios, impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation, R. Schulze, Ed., WRC Rep. 1430/1/05, 3956.

  • Hill, L., 2006: Top notch lightening forecasting buffering SA against weather risk. Eng. News, 26 (19), 1622, https://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/top-notch-lightening-forecasting-buffering-sa-against-weather-risk-2006-05-29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holle, R. L., 2008: Annual rates of lightning fatalities by country. 20th Int. Lightning Detection Conf., Tucson, AZ, Vaisala, https://www.vaisala.com/sites/default/files/documents/Annual_rates_of_lightning_fatalities_by_country.pdf.

  • Holle, R. L., J. Jensenius, W. P. Roeder, and M. A. Cooper, 2007: Comments on lightning safety advice on running to avoid being struck. 2007 Int. Conf. on Lightning and Static Electricity, Paris, France, 28–31.

  • Kane, R. J., 1993: Lightning-rainfall relationships in an isolated thunderstorm over the mid-Atlantic states. Natl. Wea. Dig., 18, 214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khumalo, S., 2016: Exploring the role of women in subsistence and smallholder farming: Implications for horticultural crop value chain development in Swayimane and Sweetwaters. M.S. thesis, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, African Centre for Food Security, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 103 pp.

  • Kithil, R., 1995: A risk management approach to lightning safety. Proc. Int. Aerospace and Ground Conf. on Lightning and Static Electricity, Williamsburg, VA, National Interagency Coordinating Group, 9-1, https://archive.org/stream/DTIC_ADA306836/DTIC_ADA306836_djvu.txt.

  • López, R. E., and R. L. Holle, 1998: Changes in the number of lightning deaths in the United States during the twentieth century. J. Climate, 11, 20702077, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442-11.8.2070.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mach, D. M., R. J. Blakeslee, and M. G. Bateman, 2011: Global electric circuit implications of combined aircraft storm electric current measurements and satellite-based diurnal lightning statistics. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D05201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madhulatha, A., M. Rajeevan, M. Venkat Ratnam, J. Bhate, and C. Naidu, 2013: Nowcasting severe convective activity over southeast India using ground-based microwave radiometer observations. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118 (1), 113, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD018174.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, T. C., M. Stolzenburg, P. R. Krehbiel, N. R. Lund, and C. R. Maggio, 2009: Electrical evolution during the decay stage of New Mexico thunderstorms. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D02209, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010637.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, P., and B. Mbambo, 2011: An exploratory study on the interplay between African customary law and practices and children’s protection rights in South Africa. Save the Children Rep., 110 pp.

  • McKechnie, I., and I. Jandrell, 2014: A systems engineering and strategic approach to holistic lightning safety and protection solutions. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Lightning Protection, Shanghai, China, IEEE, 1448–1453, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICLP.2014.6973358.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Mkrtchyan, H., 2018: Study of atmospheric discharges by near surface electric field measurements. Open Atmos. Sci. J., 12, 2132, https://doi.org/10.2174/1874282301812010021.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murphy, M. J., R. L. Holle, and N. W. Demetriades, 2008: Cloud-to-ground lightning warnings using electric field mill and lightning observations. 20th Int. Lightning Detection Conf., Tucson, AZ, Vaisala, https://www.vaisala.com/sites/default/files/documents/Cloud-to-ground_lightning_warnings_using_electric_field_mill_and_lightning_observations.pdf.

  • Peter, L., and F. Mokhonoana, 2010: Lightning detection improvement FALLS brought to Eskom’s transmission line design and fault analysis. Proc. 21st Int. Lightning Detection Conf. and Third Lightning Meteorology Conf., Orlando, FL, Vaisala, https://my.vaisala.net/Vaisala%20Documents/Scientific%20papers/8.Peter,%20Mokhonoana.pdf.

  • Poelman, D. R., 2010: On the science of lightning: An overview. Scientifique et Technique Publ. 56, Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, 56 pp.

  • Preston-Whyte, R. A., and P. D. Tyson, 1988: The Atmosphere and Weather of Southern Africa. Oxford University Press, 374 pp.

  • Price, C., 2009: Will a drier climate result in more lightning? Atmos. Res., 91, 479484, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.05.016.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Price, C., 2013: Lightning applications in weather and climate research. Surv. Geophys., 34, 755767, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-012-9218-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, S. E., M. Brook, and M. F. Gourley, 1957: Thunderstorm charge separation. Int. J. Meteor., 14, 426436, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1957)014<0426:TCS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rouault, M., S. S. Roy, and R. C. Balling, 2013: The diurnal cycle of rainfall in South Africa in the austral summer. Int. J. Climatol., 33, 770777, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3451.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudlosky, S. D., and H. E. Fuelberg, 2013: Documenting storm severity in the mid-Atlantic region using lightning and radar information. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 31863202, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-12-00287.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sabu, S., S. Srichitra, N. E. Joby, and B. Premlet, 2017: Electric field characteristics during a thunderstorm: A review of characteristics of electric field prior to lightning strike. 2017 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Signal Processing, Informatics, Communication and Energy Systems (SPICES), Kollam, India, IEEE, 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1109/SPICES.2017.8091357.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Stano, G. T., H. E. Fuelberg, and W. P. Roeder, 2010: Developing empirical lightning cessation forecast guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D09205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stuart-Hill, S. I., and R. E. Schulze, 2010: Does South Africa’s water law and policy allow for climate change adaptation? Climate Dev., 2, 128144, https://doi.org/10.3763/cdev.2010.0035.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trengove, E., and I. Jandrell, 2015: Lightning myths in southern Africa. Nat Hazards, 77, 101110, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-014-1579-4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turpie, J., and M. Visser, 2013: The impact of climate change on South Africa’s rural areas. Financial and Fiscal Commission: Submission for the 2013/14 Division of Revenue, Financial and Fiscal Commission Rep., 100–162.

  • uMngeni Resilience Project, 2014: Building resilience in the greater uMngeni Catchment, South Africa. Adaptation Fund, accessed 22 October 2018, https://www.adaptation-fund.org/project/building-resilience-in-the-greater-umngeni-catchment/.

  • UNICEF, 2011: Exploring the impact of climate change on children in South Africa. United Nations Children’s Fund Rep., 120 pp., https://www.hst.org.za/publications/NonHST%20Publications/SAF_resources_climatechange.pdf.

  • Williams, E. R., 1985: Large-scale charge separation in thunderclouds. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 60136025, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD090iD04p06013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, E. R., M. E. Weber, and R. E. Orville, 1989: The relationship between lightning type and convective state of thunderclouds. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 13 21313 220, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD094iD11p13213.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, E. R., and et al. , 1999: The behavior of total lightning activity in severe Florida thunderstorms. Atmos. Res., 51, 245265, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8095(99)00011-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WMO, 2008: Guide to meteorological instruments and methods of observation. WMO Rep. 8, 680 pp., http://www.posmet.ufv.br/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/MET-474-WMO-Guide.pdf.

  • Xu, W., E. J. Zipser, C. Liu, and H. Jiang, 2010: On the relationships between lightning frequency and thundercloud parameters of regional precipitation systems. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D12203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013385.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 264 264 72
Full Text Views 28 28 5
PDF Downloads 38 38 5

Assessment of a Ground-Based Lightning Detection and Near-Real-Time Warning System in the Rural Community of Swayimane, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

View More View Less
  • 1 a Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
  • | 2 b Discipline of Agrometeorology, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
  • | 3 c Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Mahikeng, South Africa
  • | 4 d Centre for Transformative Agricultural and Food Systems, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

Climate change projections of increases in lightning activity are an added concern for lightning-prone countries such as South Africa. South Africa’s high levels of poverty, lack of education, and awareness, as well as a poorly developed infrastructure, increase the vulnerability of rural communities to the threat of lightning. Despite the existence of national lightning networks, lightning alerts and warnings are not disseminated well to such rural communities. We therefore developed a community-based early warning system (EWS) to detect and disseminate lightning threats and alerts in a timely and comprehensible manner within Swayimane, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The system is composed of an electrical field meter and a lightning flash sensor with warnings disseminated via audible and visible alarms on site and with a remote server issuing short message services (SMSs) and email alerts. Twelve months of data (February 2018–February 2019) were utilized to evaluate the performance of the EWS’s detection and warning capabilities. Diurnal variations in lightning activity indicated the influence of solar radiation, causing convective conditions with peaks in lightning activity occurring during the late afternoon and early evening (between 1400 and 2100) coinciding with students being released from school and when most workers return home. In addition to detecting the threat of lightning, the EWS was beneficial in identifying periods that exhibited above-normal lightning activity, with two specific lightning events examined in detail. Poor network signals in rural communities presented an initial challenge, delaying data transmission to the central server until rectified using multiple network providers. Overall, the EWS was found to disseminate reliable warnings in a timely manner.

Significance Statement

Thunderstorms and, more specifically, lightning are life-threatening severe weather phenomena that can result in damage to infrastructure, physical injury, and loss of life (human and livestock). South Africa’s lightning mortality rate is said to be 4 times the global average. Despite significant progress in lightning detection and monitoring on a national scale, rural communities remain vulnerable and continue to live without any lightning warning. In an attempt to improve lightning detection on a local scale, this study developed and assessed a community-based lightning early warning system. The system has a monitoring and early warning capacity to improve the preparedness of rural communities to lightning, thus mitigating losses.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-20-0116.s1.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Maqsooda Mahomed, maqsoodamahomed@gmail.com

Abstract

Climate change projections of increases in lightning activity are an added concern for lightning-prone countries such as South Africa. South Africa’s high levels of poverty, lack of education, and awareness, as well as a poorly developed infrastructure, increase the vulnerability of rural communities to the threat of lightning. Despite the existence of national lightning networks, lightning alerts and warnings are not disseminated well to such rural communities. We therefore developed a community-based early warning system (EWS) to detect and disseminate lightning threats and alerts in a timely and comprehensible manner within Swayimane, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The system is composed of an electrical field meter and a lightning flash sensor with warnings disseminated via audible and visible alarms on site and with a remote server issuing short message services (SMSs) and email alerts. Twelve months of data (February 2018–February 2019) were utilized to evaluate the performance of the EWS’s detection and warning capabilities. Diurnal variations in lightning activity indicated the influence of solar radiation, causing convective conditions with peaks in lightning activity occurring during the late afternoon and early evening (between 1400 and 2100) coinciding with students being released from school and when most workers return home. In addition to detecting the threat of lightning, the EWS was beneficial in identifying periods that exhibited above-normal lightning activity, with two specific lightning events examined in detail. Poor network signals in rural communities presented an initial challenge, delaying data transmission to the central server until rectified using multiple network providers. Overall, the EWS was found to disseminate reliable warnings in a timely manner.

Significance Statement

Thunderstorms and, more specifically, lightning are life-threatening severe weather phenomena that can result in damage to infrastructure, physical injury, and loss of life (human and livestock). South Africa’s lightning mortality rate is said to be 4 times the global average. Despite significant progress in lightning detection and monitoring on a national scale, rural communities remain vulnerable and continue to live without any lightning warning. In an attempt to improve lightning detection on a local scale, this study developed and assessed a community-based lightning early warning system. The system has a monitoring and early warning capacity to improve the preparedness of rural communities to lightning, thus mitigating losses.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-20-0116.s1.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Maqsooda Mahomed, maqsoodamahomed@gmail.com

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 702.86 KB)
Save