• Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science, 2015: Report to the Secretary of the Interior. USGS Rep., 86 pp., https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/5c1d05d3e4b0708288c9bc2a.

  • Archie, K. M., 2014: Mountain communities and climate change adaptation: Barriers to planning and hurdles to implementation in the Southern Rocky Mountain Region of North America. Mitigation Adapt. Strategies Global Change, 19, 569587, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-013-9449-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Archie, K. M., L. Dilling, J. B. Milford, and F. C. Pampel, 2014: Unpacking the ‘information barrier’: Comparing perspectives on information as a barrier to climate change adaptation in the interior mountain west. J. Environ. Manage., 133, 397410, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ardener, S., 2005: Ardener’s “muted groups”: The genesis of an idea and its praxis. Women Lang, 28, 5054, 72.

  • Arguez, A., I. Durre, S. Applequist, R. S. Vose, M. F. Squires, X. Yin, R. R. Heim, and T. W. Owen, 2012: NOAA’s 1981–2010 U.S. climate normals: An overview. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 16871697, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00197.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arnott, J. C., K. J. Mach, and G. Wong-Parodi, 2020a: Editorial overview: The science of actionable knowledge. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainability, 42, A1A5, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2020.03.007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arnott, J. C., R. J. Neuenfeldt, and M. C. Lemos, 2020b: Co-producing science for sustainability: Can funding change knowledge use? Global Environ. Change, 60, 101979, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2019.101979.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arnstein, S. R., 1969: A ladder of citizen participation. J. Amer. Inst. Plann., 35, 216224, https://doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225.

  • Averyt, K., and Coauthors, 2017: Regional climate response collaboratives: Multi-institutional support for climate resilience. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 891898, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0183.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barry, J., and M. Thompson-Fawcett, 2020: Decolonizing the boundaries between the ‘planner’ and the ‘planned’: Implications of Indigenous property development. Plann. Theory Pract., 21, 410425, https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2020.1775874.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartlett, C., M. Marshall, and A. Marshall, 2012: Two-eyed seeing and other lessons learned within a co-learning journey of bringing together Indigenous and mainstream knowledges and ways of knowing. J. Environ. Stud. Sci., 2, 331340, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13412-012-0086-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bathke, D., T. Haigh, T. Bernadt, and N. Wall, 2019: Drought scenario-based exercises. National Drought Mitigation Center Rep., 79 pp., https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1011&context=ndmcpub.

  • Beaury, E. M., E. J. Fusco, M. R. Jackson, B. B. Laginhas, T. L. Morelli, J. M. Allen, V. J. Pasquarella, and B. A. Bradley, 2020: Incorporating climate change into invasive species management: Insights from managers. Biol. Invasions, 22, 233252, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-019-02087-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bednarek, A. T., and Coauthors, 2018: Boundary spanning at the science–policy interface: The practitioners’ perspectives. Sustainability Sci., 13, 11751183, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-018-0550-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beeton, T. A., S. M. McNeeley, B. W. Miller, and D. S. Ojima, 2019: Grounding simulation models with qualitative case studies: Toward a holistic framework to make climate science usable for US public land management. Climate Risk Manage., 23, 5066, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2018.09.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beier, P., L. Hansen, L. Helbrecht, and D. Behar, 2017: A how-to guide for coproduction of actionable science. Conserv. Lett., 10, 288296, https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12300.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beierle, T., 2002: The quality of stakeholder-based decisions. Risk Anal., 22, 739749, https://doi.org/10.1111/0272-4332.00065.

  • Bierbaum, R., and Coauthors, 2013: A comprehensive review of climate adaptation in the United States: More than before, but less than needed. Mitigation Adapt. Strategies Global Change, 18, 361406, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-012-9423-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bisbal, G. A., 2019: Practical tips to establish an actionable science portfolio for climate adaptation. Sci. Public Policy, 46, 148153, https://doi.org/10.1093/scipol/scy070.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bojovic, D., A. L. Clair St., I. Christel, M. Terrado, P. Stanzel, P. Gonzalez, and E. J. Palin, 2021: Engagement, involvement and empowerment: Three realms of a coproduction framework for climate services. Global Environ. Change, 68, 102271, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102271.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boy, G. A., 2017: The Handbook of Human-Machine Interaction: A Human-Centered Design Approach. CRC Press, 478 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bracken, L. J., H. A. Bulkeley, and G. Whitman, 2015: Transdisciplinary research: Understanding the stakeholder perspective. J. Environ. Plann. Manage., 58, 12911308, https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2014.921596.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bradbury, H., S. Waddell, K. O’ Brien, M. Apgar, B. Teehankee, and I. Fazey, 2019: A call to action research for transformations: The times demand it. Action Res., 17, 310, https://doi.org/10.1177/1476750319829633.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bremer, S., and S. Meisch, 2017: Co-production in climate change research: Reviewing different perspectives. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev.: Climate Change, 8, e482, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.482.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Briley, L., D. Brown, and S. E. Kalafatis, 2015: Overcoming barriers during the co-production of climate information for decision-making. Climate Risk Manage., 9, 4149, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2015.04.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brydon-Miller, M., D. Greenwood, and P. Maguire, 2003: Why action research? Action Res., 1, 928, https://doi.org/10.1177/14767503030011002.

  • Bush, V., 1945: Science, the endless frontier: A report to the President. U.S. Government Printing Office Doc., https://www.nsf.gov/about/history/vbush1945.htm.

  • Carter, S. K., and Coauthors, 2020: Bridging the research-management gap: Landscape science in practice on public lands in the western United States. Landscape Ecol., 35, 545560, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-020-00970-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cash, D., W. C. Clark, F. Alcock, N. M. Dickson, N. Eckley, and J. Jäger, 2003: Salience, credibility, legitimacy and boundaries: Linking research, assessment and decision making. KSG Working Paper RWP02-046, 24 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cash, D., J. C. Borck, and A. G. Patt, 2006: Countering the loading-dock approach to linking science and decision making: Comparative analysis of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasting systems. Sci. Technol. Hum. Values, 31, 465494, https://doi.org/10.1177/0162243906287547.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christel, I., D. Hemment, D. Bojovic, F. Cucchietti, L. Calvo, M. Stefaner, and C. Buontempo, 2018: Introducing design in the development of effective climate services. Climate Serv., 9, 111121, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cliser.2017.06.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clifford, K. R., W. R. Travis, and L. T. Nordgren, 2020: A climate knowledges approach to climate services. Climate Serv., 18, 100155, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cliser.2020.100155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cloyd, E., S. C. Moser, E. Maibach, J. Maldonado, and T. Chen, 2016: Engagement in the Third U.S. National Climate Assessment: Commitment, capacity, and communication for impact. Climatic Change, 135, 3954, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1568-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, C. S., and C. M. Stockton, 2018: The central role of theory in qualitative research. Int. J. Qual. Methods, 17, 1609406918797475, https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918797475.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crausbay, S. D., and Coauthors, 2020: Unfamiliar territory: Emerging themes for ecological drought research and management. One Earth, 3, 337353, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2020.08.019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cravens, A., and N. Ardoin, 2016: Negotiating credibility and legitimacy in the shadow of an authoritative data source. Ecol. Soc., 21, art30, https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-08849-210430.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davidson, S., 1998: Spinning the wheel of empowerment. Planning, 1262, 1415.

  • DeCrappeo, N. M., G. A. Bisbal, and A. M. Meadow, 2017: A path to actionable climate science: Perspectives from the field. Environ. Manage., 61, 181187, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-017-0960-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dilling, L., and M. C. Lemos, 2011: Creating usable science: Opportunities and constraints for climate knowledge use and their implications for science policy. Global Environ. Change, 21, 680689, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.11.006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dilling, L., K. Lackstrom, B. Haywood, K. Dow, M. C. Lemos, J. Berggren, and S. Kalafatis, 2015: What stakeholder needs tell us about enabling adaptive capacity: The intersection of context and information provision across regions in the United States. Wea. Climate Soc., 7, 517, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00001.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diver, S., 2017: Negotiating Indigenous knowledge at the science-policy interface: Insights from the Xáxli’p Community Forest. Environ. Sci. Policy, 73, 111, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2017.03.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doemeland, D., and J. Trevino, 2014: Which World Bank reports are widely read? World Bank Working Paper 6851, 32 pp., https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/387501468322733597/pdf/WPS6851.pdf.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Doswell, C. A., A. R. Moller, and H. E. Brooks, 1999: Storm spotting and public awareness since the first tornado forecasts of 1948. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 544557, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1999)014<0544:SSAPAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enquist, C., and Coauthors, 2017: Foundations of translational ecology. Front. Ecol. Environ., 15, 541550, https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.1733.

  • Eyring, V., S. Bony, G. A. Meehl, C. A. Senior, B. Stevens, R. J. Stouffer, and K. E. Taylor, 2016: Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization. Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 19371958, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-1937-2016.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Few, R., K. Brown, and E. Tompkins, 2007: Public participation and climate change adaptation: Avoiding the illusion of inclusion. Climate Policy, 7, 4659, https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2007.9685637.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Filho, W. L., Ed., 2015: Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation. Springer-Verlag, 2198 pp.

  • Fisher, J. R. B., S. A. Wood, M. A. Bradford, and T. R. Kelsey, 2020: Improving scientific impact: How to practice science that influences environmental policy and management. Conserv. Sci. Pract., 2, e210, https://doi.org/10.1111/csp2.210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friesen, P., L. Kearns, B. Redman, and A. L. Caplan, 2017: Rethinking the Belmont report? Amer. J. Bioeth., 17, 1521, https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2017.1329482.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fyfe, A., K. Coate, S. Curry, S. Lawson, N. Moxham, and C. M. Røstvik, 2017: Untangling academic publishing: A history of the relationship between commercial interests, academic prestige and the circulation of research. U.K. Arts and Humanities Research Council Briefing Paper, 23 pp., https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.546100.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gasson, S., 2003: Human-centered vs. user-centered approaches to information system design. J. Inf. Technol. Theory Appl., 5, 29–46.

  • Gerlak, A. K., T. Heikkila, and J. Newig, 2020: Learning in environmental governance: Opportunities for translating theory to practice. J. Environ. Policy Plann., 22, 653666, https://doi.org/10.1080/1523908X.2020.1776100.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gluckman, P., and J. Wilsdon, 2016: From paradox to principles: Where next for scientific advice to governments? Palgrave Commun., 2, 16077, https://doi.org/10.1057/palcomms.2016.77.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodrich, K. A., K. D. Sjostrom, C. Vaughan, L. Nichols, A. Bednarek, and M. C. Lemos, 2020: Who are boundary spanners and how can we support them in making knowledge more actionable in sustainability fields? Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainability, 42, 4551, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2020.01.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guido, Z., D. Hill, M. Crimmins, and D. Ferguson, 2013: Informing decisions with a climate synthesis product: Implications for regional climate services. Wea. Climate Soc., 5, 8392, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-12-00012.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hassol, S. J., 2008: Improving how scientists communicate about climate change. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 89, 106107, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008EO110002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hegger, D., M. Lamers, A. V. Zeijl-Rozema, and C. Dieperink, 2012: Conceptualising joint knowledge production in regional climate change adaptation projects: Success conditions and levers for action. Environ. Sci. Policy, 18, 5265, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.01.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hegger, D., A. V. Zeijl-Rozema, and C. Dieperink, 2014: Toward design principles for joint knowledge production projects: Lessons from the deepest polder of The Netherlands. Reg. Environ. Change, 14, 10491062, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-012-0382-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Human, B. A., and A. Davies, 2010: Stakeholder consultation during the planning phase of scientific programs. Mar. Policy, 34, 645654, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2009.12.003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IDEO, 2015: The Field Guide to Human-Centered Design. 1st ed. IDEO.org/Design Kit, 192 pp.

  • Imenda, S., 2014: Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and conceptual frameworks? J. Soc. Sci., 38, 185195, https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2014.11893249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IPCC, 2018: Summary for policymakers. Global Warming of 1.5°C, V. Masson-Delmotte et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 32 pp., https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2019/05/SR15_SPM_version_report_LR.pdf.

  • Jagannathan, K., A. D. Jones, and I. Ray, 2020: The making of a metric: Co-producing decision-relevant climate science. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 102, E1579E1590, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0296.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jansen, T., L. Claassen, I. van Kamp, and D. R. M. Timmermans, 2019: Understanding of the concept of ‘uncertain risk’. A qualitative study among different societal groups. J. Risk Res., 22, 658672, https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2018.1503614.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jantarasami, L., J. Lawler, and C. Thomas, 2010: Institutional barriers to climate change adaptation in U.S. National Parks and Forests. Ecol. Soc., 15, art33, https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-03715-150433.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jarvis, R. M., and Coauthors, 2020: Navigating spaces between conservation research and practice: Are we making progress? Ecol. Solutions Evidence, 1, e12028, https://doi.org/10.1002/2688-8319.12028.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jasanoff, S., Ed., 2004: States of Knowledge: The Co-production of Science and the Social Order. Routledge, 317 pp.

  • Johnson, C. J., and M. P. Gillingham, 2004: Mapping uncertainty: Sensitivity of wildlife habitat ratings to expert opinion. J. Appl. Ecol., 41, 10321041, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-8901.2004.00975.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalafatis, S. E., M. C. Lemos, Y.-J. Lo, and K. A. Frank, 2015: Increasing information usability for climate adaptation: The role of knowledge networks and communities of practice. Global Environ. Change, 32, 3039, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.02.007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kemp, K. B., J. J. Blades, P. Z. Klos, T. E. Hall, J. E. Force, P. Morgan, and W. T. Tinkham, 2015: Managing for climate change on federal lands of the western United States: Perceived usefulness of climate science, effectiveness of adaptation strategies, and barriers to implementation. Ecol. Soc., 20, 17, https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-07522-200217.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kimmerer, R. W., 2014: Returning the gift. Minding Nat., 7, 18–24.

  • Kirby, C. K., C. Haruo, K. P. Whyte, J. C. Libarkin, C. Caldwell, and R. Edler, 2019: Ethical collaboration and the need for training: Partnerships between Native American Tribes and climate science organisations. Gateways Int. J. Community Res. Engagement, 12, 5894–5894, https://doi.org/10.5130/ijcre.v12i1.5894.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kirchhoff, C. J., M. C. Lemos, and S. Dessai, 2013: Actionable knowledge for environmental decision making: Broadening the usability of climate science. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 38, 393414, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-022112-112828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirchhoff, C. J., R. Esselman, and D. Brown, 2015: Boundary organizations to boundary chains: Prospects for advancing climate science application. Climate Risk Manage., 9, 2029, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2015.04.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klemm, T., and R. A. McPherson, 2018: Assessing decision timing and seasonal climate forecast needs of winter wheat producers in the south-central United States. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 57, 21292140, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0246.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klenk, N., A. Fiume, K. Meehan, and C. Gibbes, 2017: Local knowledge in climate adaptation research: Moving knowledge frameworks from extraction to co-production. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev.: Climate Change, 8, e475, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.475.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kruk, M. C., R. Vose, R. Heim, A. Arguez, J. Enloe, X. Yin, and T. Wallis, 2018: Drought amelioration: An engagement-to-implementation success story. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 24572462, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0177.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaChapelle, P. R., S. F. McCool, and M. E. Patterson, 2003: Barriers to effective natural resource planning in a “messy” world. Soc. Nat. Resour., 16, 473490, https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920309151.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Land, M., B. Macura, C. Bernes, and S. Johansson, 2017: A five-step approach for stakeholder engagement in prioritisation and planning of environmental evidence syntheses. Environ. Evid., 6, 25, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13750-017-0104-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latulippe, N., and N. Klenk, 2020: Making room and moving over: Knowledge co-production, Indigenous knowledge sovereignty and the politics of global environmental change decision-making. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainability, 42, 714, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2019.10.010.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laursen, S., N. Puniwai, A. S. Genz, S. A. B. Nash, L. K. Canale, and S. Ziegler-Chong, 2018: Collaboration across worldviews: Managers and scientists on Hawaiʻi Island utilize knowledge coproduction to facilitate climate change adaptation. Environ. Manage., 62, 619630, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-018-1069-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ledingham, J. A., 2003: Explicating relationship management as a general theory of public relations. J. Public Relat. Res., 15, 181198, https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532754XJPRR1502_4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ledingham, J. A., and S. D. Bruning, 1998: Relationship management in public relations: Dimensions of an organization-public relationship. Public Relat. Rev., 24, 5565, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111(98)80020-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, K. A., J. R. Lee, and P. Bell, 2020: A review of citizen science within the earth sciences: Potential benefits and obstacles. Proc. Geol. Assoc., 131, 605617, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pgeola.2020.07.010.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leitch, A. M., J. P. Palutikof, D. Rissik, S. L. Boulter, F. N. Tonmoy, S. Webb, A. C. P. Vidaurre, and M. C. Campbell, 2019: Co-development of a climate change decision support framework through engagement with stakeholders. Climatic Change, 153, 587605, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-019-02401-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemos, M. C., C. J. Kirchhoff, and V. Ramprasad, 2012: Narrowing the climate information usability gap. Nat. Climate Change, 2, 789794, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1614.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemos, M. C., and Coauthors, 2018: To co-produce or not to co-produce. Nat. Sustainability, 1, 722724, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-018-0191-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemos, M. C., K. S. Wolske, L. V. Rasmussen, J. C. Arnott, M. Kalcic, and C. J. Kirchhoff, 2019: The closer, the better? Untangling scientist–practitioner engagement, interaction, and knowledge use. Wea. Climate Soc., 11, 535548, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-18-0075.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lubchenco, J., 2017: Delivering on science’s social contract. Mich. J. Sustainability, 5, 95108, https://doi.org/10.3998/mjs.12333712.0005.106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lynam, T., W. de Jong, D. Sheil, T. Kusumanto, and K. Evans, 2007: A review of tools for incorporating community knowledge, preferences, and values into decision making in natural resources management. Ecol. Soc., 12, art5, https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-01987-120105.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lynn, L. E., Jr., 1978: Knowledge and Policy: The Uncertain Connection. National Academies Press, 184 pp.

  • Mach, K. J., and Coauthors, 2020: Actionable knowledge and the art of engagement. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainability, 42, 3037, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2020.01.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magliocca, N. R., and Coauthors, 2018: Closing global knowledge gaps: Producing generalized knowledge from case studies of social-ecological systems. Global Environ. Change, 50, 114, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.03.003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matsui, K., 2015: Problems of defining and validating traditional knowledge: A historical approach. Int. Indig. Policy J., 6, 2, https://doi.org/10.18584/iipj.2015.6.2.2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maudlin, L. C., K. S. McNeal, H. Dinon-Aldridge, C. Davis, R. Boyles, and R. M. Atkins, 2020: Website usability differences between males and females: An eye-tracking evaluation of a climate decision support system. Wea. Climate Soc., 12, 183192, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-18-0127.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCarthy, I. P., D. Hannah, L. F. Pitt, and J. M. McCarthy, 2020: Confronting indifference toward truth: Dealing with workplace bullshit. Bus. Horiz., 63, 253263, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2020.01.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKinley, D. C., and Coauthors, 2017: Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection. Biol. Conserv., 208, 1528, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.05.015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNie, E. C., 2007: Reconciling the supply of scientific information with user demands: An analysis of the problem and review of the literature. Environ. Sci. Policy, 10, 1738, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2006.10.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNie, E. C., 2013: Delivering climate services: Organizational strategies and approaches for producing useful climate-science information. Wea. Climate Soc., 5, 1426, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-11-00034.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meadow, A. M., D. B. Ferguson, Z. Guido, A. Horangic, G. Owen, and T. Wall, 2015: Moving toward the deliberate coproduction of climate science knowledge. Wea. Climate Soc., 7, 179191, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00050.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morisette, J. T., and Coauthors, 2017: Crossing boundaries in a collaborative modeling workspace. Soc. Nat. Resour., 30, 11581167, https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2017.1290178.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moser, S. C., and J. A. Ekstrom, 2010: A framework to diagnose barriers to climate change adaptation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 22 02622 031, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1007887107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naskar, M., K. Roy, G. Karnatak, S. K. Nandy, and A. Roy, 2018: Quantifying climate change induced threats to wetland fisheries: A stakeholder-driven approach. Environ. Dev. Sustainability, 20, 28112830, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-017-0018-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Research Council, 2009: Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate. National Academies Press, 200 pp., https://doi.org/10.17226/12626.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • National Research Council, 2012: Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy. National Academies Press, 122 pp., https://doi.org/10.17226/13460.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Naugle, D. E., B. W. Allred, M. O. Jones, D. Twidwell, and J. D. Maestas, 2020: Coproducing science to inform working lands: The next frontier in nature conservation. BioScience, 70, 9096, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biz144.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nguyen, V. M., N. Young, J. W. Brownscombe, and S. J. Cooke, 2019: Collaboration and engagement produce more actionable science: Quantitatively analyzing uptake of fish tracking studies. Ecol. Appl., 29, e01943, https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1943.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NIDIS, 2016: The National Integrated Drought Information System implementation plan—2016 update. NOAA Doc., 31 pp., https://www.drought.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/Implementation-Plan-December-2016-Update.pdf.

  • Norström, A. V., and Coauthors, 2020: Principles for knowledge co-production in sustainability research. Nat. Sustainability, 3, 182190, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0448-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oakley, N. S., and B. Daudert, 2016: Establishing best practices to improve usefulness and usability of web interfaces providing atmospheric data. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97, 263274, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00121.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Haire, C., and Coauthors, 2011: Appendix G: Strengths and limitations of stakeholder engagement methods. Engaging Stakeholders To Identify and Prioritize Future Research Needs, Methods Future Research Needs Reports, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, G-1–G-3.

  • Oliver, K., A. Kothari, and N. Mays, 2019: The dark side of coproduction: Do the costs outweigh the benefits for health research? Health Res. Policy Syst., 17, 33, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-019-0432-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orbe, M. P., 1998: From the standpoint(s) of traditionally muted groups: Explicating a co-cultural communication theoretical model. Commun. Theory, 8, 126, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.1998.tb00209.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillipson, J., P. Lowe, A. Proctor, and E. Ruto, 2012: Stakeholder engagement and knowledge exchange in environmental research. J. Environ. Manage., 95, 5665, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.10.005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pielke, R. A., Jr., 2007: The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics. Cambridge University Press, 198 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Plattner, H., C. Meinel, and L. Leifer, Eds., 2011: Design Thinking: Understand–Improve–Apply. Springer-Verlag, 260 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Porter, K., and Coauthors, 2011: Overview of the ARkStorm scenario. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Rep. 2010-1312, 201 pp., https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1312/of2010-1312_text.pdf.

  • Prior, J., 2013: Community engagement to resolve climate adaptation conflicts. Climate Adaptation Futures. John Wiley and Sons, 167–176.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Pulver, S., N. Ulibarri, K. Sobocinski, S. Alexander, M. Johnson, P. McCord, and J. Dell’Angelo, 2018: Frontiers in socio-environmental research: Components, connections, scale, and context. Ecol. Soc., 23, art23, https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-10280-230323.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Purdy, A. J., and Coauthors, 2019: Designing drought indicators. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 100, 23272341, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0146.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, R., M. Sanó, A. Roiko, R. W. Carter, M. Bussey, J. Matthews, and T. F. Smith, 2013: Bayesian belief modeling of climate change impacts for informing regional adaptation options. Environ. Modell. Software, 44, 113121, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.07.008.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rittel, H. W. J., and M. M. Webber, 1973: Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sci., 4, 155169, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01405730.

  • Rose, D. C., and Coauthors, 2018: The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions. Conserv. Lett., 11, e12564, https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12564.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosendahl, D., R. McPherson, A. Wootten, E. Mullens, J. Blackband, and A. Bryan, 2019: Making sense of local climate projections. Eos, 100, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EO136493.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ross, S. L., and Coauthors, 2013: The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario—Executive summary and introduction. California Geological Survey Special Rep. 229, 17 pp., https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1170/a/pdf/of2013-1170a.pdf.

  • Rouse, W., 2007: People and Organizations: Explorations of Human-Centered Design. John Wiley and Sons, 446 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Rowe, G., and L. J. Frewer, 2005: A typology of public engagement mechanisms. Sci. Technol. Hum. Values, 30, 251290, https://doi.org/10.1177/0162243904271724.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rumore, D., T. Schenk, and L. Susskind, 2016: Role-play simulations for climate change adaptation education and engagement. Nat. Climate Change, 6, 745750, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3084.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rundstrom, R., 2009: Counter-mapping. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, R. Kitchin and N. Thrift, Eds., Elsevier, 314–318.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Saarman, E., and Coauthors, 2013: The role of science in supporting marine protected area network planning and design in California. Ocean Coastal Manage., 74, 4556, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.08.021.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samson, E., P. E. Hirsch, S. C. F. Palmer, J. W. Behrens, T. Brodin, and J. M. J. Travis, 2017: Early engagement of stakeholders with individual-based modeling can inform research for improving invasive species management: The round goby as a case study. Front. Ecol. Evol., 5, 149, https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2017.00149.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sarewitz, D., and R. A. Pielke Jr., 2007: The neglected heart of science policy: Reconciling supply of and demand for science. Environ. Sci. Policy, 10, 516, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2006.10.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sarkki, S., H. I. Heikkinen, and A. Löf, 2021: Reindeer herders as stakeholders or rights-holders? Introducing a social equity-based conceptualization relevant for Indigenous and local communities. Nordic Perspectives on the Responsible Development of the Arctic: Pathways to Action, D. C. Nord, Ed., Springer Polar Sciences Series, Springer International Publishing, 271–292.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Scheufele, D. A., and S. Iyengar, 2017: The state of framing research: A call for new directions. The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication, Oxford University Press, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199793471.013.47.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Schlesinger, W. H., 2010: Translational ecology. Science, 329, 609609, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1195624.

  • Sharfstein, J. M., 2016: Banishing “stakeholders.” Milbank Quart., 94, 476479, https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12208.

  • Simonsen, J., and T. Robertson, Eds., 2013: Routledge International Handbook of Participatory Design. 1st ed. Routledge, 320 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Stedman, R. C., N. A. Connelly, T. A. Heberlein, D. J. Decker, and S. B. Allred, 2019: The end of the (research) world as we know it? Understanding and coping with declining response rates to mail surveys. Soc. Nat. Resour., 32, 11391154, https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2019.1587127.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Symstad, A. J., N. A. Fisichelli, B. W. Miller, E. Rowland, and G. W. Schuurman, 2017: Multiple methods for multiple futures: Integrating qualitative scenario planning and quantitative simulation modeling for natural resource decision making. Climate Risk Manage., 17, 7891, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2017.07.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, K. E., R. J. Stouffer, and G. A. Meehl, 2012: An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 485498, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00094.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turnhout, E., T. Metze, C. Wyborn, N. Klenk, and E. Louder, 2020: The politics of co-production: Participation, power, and transformation. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainability, 42, 1521, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2019.11.009.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Government, 1971: Alaska Native Claims Settlement. 43 U.S. Code, https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title43/chapter33&edition=prelim.

  • Wall, T., A. M. Meadow, and A. Horangic, 2017: Developing evaluation indicators to improve the process of coproducing usable climate science. Wea. Climate Soc., 9, 95107, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-16-0008.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • West, S., L. J. Haider, S. Stålhammar, and S. Woroniecki, 2020: A relational turn for sustainability science? Relational thinking, leverage points and transformations. Ecosyst. People, 16, 304325, https://doi.org/10.1080/26395916.2020.1814417.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Western Governors’ Association, 2004: Creating a drought early warning system for the 21st century. National Integrated Drought Information System Rep., 16 pp., https://www.drought.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/200406_WGA_NIDIS_Report.pdf.

  • White, D. D., A. Wutich, K. L. Larson, P. Gober, T. Lant, and C. Senneville, 2010: Credibility, salience, and legitimacy of boundary objects: Water managers’ assessment of a simulation model in an immersive decision theater. Sci. Public Policy, 37, 219232, https://doi.org/10.3152/030234210X497726.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whyte, K. P., 2014: Justice forward: Tribes, climate adaptation and responsibility. Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples in the United States: Impacts, Experiences and Actions, J. K. Maldonado, B. Colombi, and R. Pandya, Eds., Springer International Publishing, 9–22.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Whyte, K. P., 2020: Too late for Indigenous climate justice: Ecological and relational tipping points. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev.: Climate Change, 11, e603, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilkins, E. J., and Coauthors, 2019: Rural-urban differences in hunting and birdwatching attitudes and participation intent. Hum. Dimens. Wildl., 24, 530547, https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2019.1661046.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, M. A., and R. B. Howarth, 2002: Discourse-based valuation of ecosystem services: Establishing fair outcomes through group deliberation. Ecol. Econ., 41, 431443, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00092-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wong-Parodi, G., K. J. Mach, K. Jagannathan, and K. D. Sjostrom, 2020: Insights for developing effective decision support tools for environmental sustainability. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainability, 42, 5259, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2020.01.005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Meteorological Organization, 2014: Implementation plan of the Global Framework for Climate Services. WMO Doc., 81 pp., https://gfcs.wmo.int/sites/default/files/implementation-plan//GFCS-IMPLEMENTATION-PLAN-FINAL-14211_en.pdf.

  • Wright, P., and J. McCarthy, 2010: Experience-centered design: Designers, users, and communities in dialogue. Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics, Vol. 3, Morgan and Claypool, 123 pp., https://doi.org/10.2200/S00229ED1V01Y201003HCI009.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wyborn, C., A. Datta, J. Montana, M. Ryan, P. Leith, B. Chaffin, C. Miller, and L. van Kerkhoff, 2019: Co-producing sustainability: Reordering the governance of science, policy, and practice. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 44, 319–346, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-101718-033103.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1736 1621 102
Full Text Views 439 418 45
PDF Downloads 370 354 33

Engaging with Stakeholders to Produce Actionable Science: A Framework and Guidance

View More View Less
  • 1 aU.S. Geological Survey North Central Climate Adaptation Science Center, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • | 2 bUniversity of Oklahoma Department of Geography and Environmental Sustainability, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 3 cU.S. Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • | 4 dU.S. Geological Survey South Central Climate Adaptation Science Center, Norman, Oklahoma
Restricted access

Abstract

Natural and cultural resource managers are increasingly working with the scientific community to create information on how best to adapt to the current and projected impacts of climate change. Engaging with these managers is a strategy that researchers can use to ensure that scientific outputs and findings are actionable (or useful and usable). In this article, the authors adapt Davidson’s wheel of participation to characterize and describe common stakeholder engagement strategies across the spectrum of inform, consult, participate, and empower. This adapted framework provides researchers with a standardized vocabulary for describing their engagement approach, guidance on how to select an approach, methods for implementing engagement, and potential barriers to overcome. While there is often no one “best” approach to engaging with stakeholders, researchers can use the objectives of their project and the decision context in which their stakeholders operate to guide their selection. Researchers can also revisit this framework over time as their project objectives shift and their stakeholder relationships evolve.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Aparna Bamzai-Dodson, abamzai@usgs.gov

Abstract

Natural and cultural resource managers are increasingly working with the scientific community to create information on how best to adapt to the current and projected impacts of climate change. Engaging with these managers is a strategy that researchers can use to ensure that scientific outputs and findings are actionable (or useful and usable). In this article, the authors adapt Davidson’s wheel of participation to characterize and describe common stakeholder engagement strategies across the spectrum of inform, consult, participate, and empower. This adapted framework provides researchers with a standardized vocabulary for describing their engagement approach, guidance on how to select an approach, methods for implementing engagement, and potential barriers to overcome. While there is often no one “best” approach to engaging with stakeholders, researchers can use the objectives of their project and the decision context in which their stakeholders operate to guide their selection. Researchers can also revisit this framework over time as their project objectives shift and their stakeholder relationships evolve.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Aparna Bamzai-Dodson, abamzai@usgs.gov
Save