• Adger, W. N., 2006: Vulnerability. Global Environ. Change, 16, 268281.

  • Baijukya, F. P., 2004: Adapting to change in banana-based farming systems of northwest Tanzania. Ph.D. dissertation, Wageningen University, 192 pp. [Available online at http://edepot.wur.nl/121607.]

  • Boyd, E., Osbahr H. , Ericksen P. J. , Tompkins E. L. , Lemos M. C. , and Miller F. , 2008: Resilience and ‘climatizing’ development: Examples and policy implications. Development, 51, 390396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brooks, N., Adger W. N. , and Kelly P. M. , 2005: The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global Environ. Change, 15, 151163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Confalonieri, U., Menne B. , Akhtar R. , Ebi K. L. , Hauengue M. , Kovats R. S. , Revich B. , and Woodward A. , 2007: Human health. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. M. L. Parry et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 391–431.

  • Crane, T. A., 2010: Of models and meanings: Cultural resilience in social–ecological systems. Ecol. Soc.,15, 19. [Available online at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art19/.]

  • Crane, T. A., 2013: The role of local institutions in adaptive processes to climate variability: The cases of southern Ethiopia and southern Mali. Oxfam Research Rep., Oxfam America, 34 pp. [Available online at http://www.oxfamamerica.org/files/the-role-of-local-institutions-in-adaptive-processes-to-climate-variability.pdf.]

  • Crane, T. A., Roncoli C. , and Hoogenboom G. , 2011: Adaptation to climate change and climate variability: The importance of understanding agriculture as performance, NJAS Wageningen J. Life Sci., 57, 179185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Culwick, A. T., and Culwick G. M. , 1994: The Culwick Papers, 1934–1944: Population, Food and Health in Colonial Tanganyika. V. Berry, Ed., Academy Books, 288 pp.

  • Demetriades, J., and Esplen E. , 2009: The gender dimensions of poverty and climate change adaptation. IDS Bull., 39, 2431.

  • Denton, F., 2002: Climate change vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation: Why does gender matter? Gender Dev., 2, 1020.

  • de Waal, A., 2006: AIDS and Power: Why There Is No Political Crisis—Yet. Zed Books, 176 pp.

  • Eriksen, S. H., Brown K. , and Kelly P. M. , 2005: The dynamics of vulnerability: Locating coping strategies in Kenya and Tanzania. Geogr. J., 171, 287305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FAO, 2005: The state of food insecurity in the world 2005: Eradicating world hunger—Key to achieving the millennium development goals. FAO Rep., 36 pp. [Available online at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/008/a0200e/a0200e.pdf.]

  • Ford, J. D., Keskitalo E. C. H. , Smith T. , Pearce T. , Berrang-Ford L. , Duerden F. , and Smit B. , 2010: Case study and analogue methodologies in climate change vulnerability research. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev.: Climate Change, 1, 374392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallopín, G. C., 2006: Linkages between vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity. Global Environ. Change, 16, 293303.

  • Githinji, V., 2008: Ethno-cognitive connections between HIV/AIDS and banana plants in the Bahaya agricultural society of northwestern Tanzania. NJAS Wageningen J. Life Sci., 3, 191200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Githinji, V., 2009a: Children’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, poverty and malnutrition in Buhaya: Advancement through women’s empowerment. Child. Afr., 1, 1118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Githinji, V., 2009b: Food insecurity in Buhaya: The cycle of women’s marginalization and the spread of hunger and disease. Natl. Assoc. Pract. Anthropol. Bull., 1, 92114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Githinji, V., 2011a: Banana symbolism and change in Bahaya culture. Bananas: Nutrition, Diseases and Trade Issues, A. E. Cohen, Ed., Nova Science Publishers, 277–287.

  • Githinji, V., 2011b: Food and nutrition insecurity, HIV/AIDS and gendered vulnerability in Buhaya, Tanzania. J. Res. Peace Gender Dev., 1, 257264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hecht, R., Taylor A. A. K. , Post S. , Andersen N. B. , and Schwarz R. , 2006: Putting it together: AIDS and the millennium development goals. PLoS Med., 11, 19921998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, A. E., Wort U. U. , Morse A. P. , Hastings I. M. , and Gagnon A. S. , 2007: Climate prediction of El Niño malaria epidemics in north-west Tanzania. Malar. J., 6, 162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaijage, F. J., 1993: AIDS control and the burden of history in northwestern Tanzania. Popul. Environ., 3, 279300.

  • Kangalawe, R., Mwakalila S. , and Masolwa P. , 2011: Climate change impacts, local knowledge and coping strategies in the Great Ruaha River catchment area, Tanzania. Nat. Res., 2, 212223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kizza, M., Rodhe A. , Xu C. , Ntale H. K. , and Halldin S. , 2009: Temporal rainfall variability in the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa during the twentieth century. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 98, 119135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemos, M. C., Boyd E. , Tompkins E. L. , Osbahr H. , and Liverman D. , 2007: Developing adaptation and adapting development. Ecol. Soc., 12, 26.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leonard-Green, T. K., and Watson R. R. , 1989: The AIDS-immunocompetence-nutrition-infection cycle. Cofactors in HIV-1 Infection and AIDS, R. R. Watson, Ed., CRC Press, 187–200.

  • Lundberg, M., Over M. , and Mujinja P. , 2000: Sources of financial assistance for household suffering an adult death in Kagera, Tanzania. S. Afr. J. Econ., 68, 947984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Niehof, A., Rugalema G. , and Gillespie S. , 2010: AIDS and Rural Livelihoods: Dynamics and Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Routledge, 248 pp.

  • Paavola, J., 2008: Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania. Environ. Sci. Policy, 11, 642654.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patz, J. A., Graczyk T. K. , Geller N. , and Vittor A. Y. , 2000: Effects of environmental change on emerging parasitic diseases. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 13951405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rald, J., 1975: Rural Organization in Bukoba District, Tanzania. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 122 pp.

  • Roncoli, C., Crane T. , and Orlove B. , 2009: Fielding climate change in cultural anthropology. Anthropology and Climate Change: From Encounters to Actions, S. Crate and M. Nutall, Eds., Left Coast Press, 87–115.

  • Rowhani, P., Lobell D. B. , Linderman M. , and Ramankutty N. , 2011: Climate variability and crop production in Tanzania. Agric. For. Meteor., 151, 449460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rugalema, G., 1999: Adult mortality as entitlement failure: AIDS and the crisis of rural livelihoods in a Tanzanian village. Ph.D. dissertation, Institute of Social Studies, 227 pp.

  • Rugalema, G., and Mathieson K. , Eds., 2009: Disease, vulnerability and livelihoods on the Tanzania-Uganda interface ecosystem to the west of Lake Victoria: Diagnostic survey of north-western Tanzania. FAO Rep., 67 pp. [Available online at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0759e/i0759e.pdf.]

  • Rugalema, G., Muir G. , Mathieson K. , Measures E. , Oehler F. , and Stoukal L. , 2009: Emerging and re-emerging diseases of agricultural importance: Why local perspectives matter. Food Secur., 1, 441455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt, P., 1997: Archaeological views on a history of landscape change in East Africa. J. Afr. Hist., 3, 393421.

  • Smit, B., and Wandel J. , 2006: Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environ. Change, 16, 282292.

  • Stillwaggon, E., 2006: AIDS and the Ecology of Poverty. Oxford University Press, 272 pp.

  • Sweetman, C., Ed., 2001: Gender, Development, and Health. Oxfam, 115 pp.

  • Thornton, P. K., Jones P. G. , Alagarswamy G. , Andresen J. , and Herrero M. , 2009: Adapting to climate change: Agricultural system and household impacts in East Africa. Agric. Syst., 103, 7382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tschakert, P., 2006: Views from the vulnerable: Understanding climatic and other stressors in the Sahel. Global Environ. Change, 17, 381396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiss, B., 1996: The Making and Unmaking of the Haya Lived World: Consumption, Commodization, and Everyday Practice. Duke University Press, 250 pp.

  • Yanda, P. Z., Kangalawe R. Y. M. , and Sigalla R. J. , 2005: Climatic and socio-economic influences on malaria and cholera risks in the Lake Victoria region of Tanzania. AIACC Working Paper 12, 26 pp. [Available online at http://www.aiaccproject.org/working_papers/Working%20Papers/AIACC_WP_No012.pdf.]

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 335 211 0
PDF Downloads 219 145 0

Compound Vulnerabilities: The Intersection of Climate Variability and HIV/AIDS in Northwestern Tanzania

View More View Less
  • 1 Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands
Restricted access

Abstract

Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Nsisha, a rural village located close to the shores of Lake Victoria in northwestern Tanzania, this article analyzes how climate change and variability intersect with other stressors that affect rural livelihoods, particularly HIV/AIDS. The analysis integrates theories of vulnerability from both climate and HIV/AIDS literatures to show how these intersecting stressors compound livelihood vulnerability in complex ways. Climate change and variability are linked to declining agricultural yields and an increase in food and nutrition insecurity and poor health in this region. This situation heightens poverty and susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, compromising people’s abilities to cope and adapt. Because of social dynamics, single mothers and their children are particularly affected by these compound vulnerabilities. Climate change and variability are significant contributing vulnerability factors that sustain and exacerbate asymmetrical poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and HIV/AIDS. By describing the links between vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and climate variability, findings highlight the importance of holistic and localized approaches to adaptation, instead of trying to isolate single issues. Prioritization of multidisciplinary research focusing on the socially differentiated and gendered distribution of vulnerability specifically in regard to poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and HIV/AIDS is recommended as a means to enrich the understanding of climate change vulnerability. Adaptation strategies should address how climatic shifts interact with generalized poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, health, and gendered vulnerability in areas most affected.

Corresponding author address: Valerie Githinji, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 9101, 6700 HB Wageningen, Netherlands. E-mail: valerieefoster@yahoo.com; todd.crane@wur.nl

Abstract

Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Nsisha, a rural village located close to the shores of Lake Victoria in northwestern Tanzania, this article analyzes how climate change and variability intersect with other stressors that affect rural livelihoods, particularly HIV/AIDS. The analysis integrates theories of vulnerability from both climate and HIV/AIDS literatures to show how these intersecting stressors compound livelihood vulnerability in complex ways. Climate change and variability are linked to declining agricultural yields and an increase in food and nutrition insecurity and poor health in this region. This situation heightens poverty and susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, compromising people’s abilities to cope and adapt. Because of social dynamics, single mothers and their children are particularly affected by these compound vulnerabilities. Climate change and variability are significant contributing vulnerability factors that sustain and exacerbate asymmetrical poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and HIV/AIDS. By describing the links between vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and climate variability, findings highlight the importance of holistic and localized approaches to adaptation, instead of trying to isolate single issues. Prioritization of multidisciplinary research focusing on the socially differentiated and gendered distribution of vulnerability specifically in regard to poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and HIV/AIDS is recommended as a means to enrich the understanding of climate change vulnerability. Adaptation strategies should address how climatic shifts interact with generalized poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, health, and gendered vulnerability in areas most affected.

Corresponding author address: Valerie Githinji, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 9101, 6700 HB Wageningen, Netherlands. E-mail: valerieefoster@yahoo.com; todd.crane@wur.nl
Save