• Baumgartner, E. A., and Coauthors, 2008: Hypothermia and other cold-related morbidity emergency department visits: United States, 1995-2004. Wilderness Environ. Med., 19, 233237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005: Hypothermia-related deaths—United States, 2003–2004. Morbidity Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 54, 173175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006: Hypothermia-related deaths—United States, 1999–2002 and 2005. Morbidity Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 55, 282284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012a: Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) toolkit: Second edition. CDC, 91 pp. [Available online at http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/surveillance/pdf/CASPER_toolkit_508%20COMPLIANT.pdf.]

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012b: Extreme cold—A prevention guide to promote your personal health and safety. CDC, 13 pp. [Available online at http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/winter/pdf/cold_guide.pdf.]

  • Hoekstra, S., Klockow K. , Riley R. , Brotzge J. , Brooks H. , and Erickson S. , 2011: A preliminary look at the social perspective of warn-on-forecast: Preferred tornado warning lead time and the general public’s perceptions of weather risks. Wea. Climate Soc., 3, 128140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joslyn, S., Nadav-Greenberg L. , and Nichols R. M. , 2009: Probability of precipitation assessment and enhancement of end-user understanding. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 185–193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaminsky, D. A., Bates J. H. T. , and Irvin C. G. , 2000: Effects of cool, dry air stimulation on peripheral lung mechanics in asthma. Amer. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 162, 179186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindell, M. K, and Perry R. W. , 2004: Communicating Environmental Risk in Multiethnic Communities.SAGE Publications, Inc., 272 pp.

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003: Report on wind chill temperature and extreme heat indices: Evaluation and improvement projects. OFCM Rep. FCM-R19-2003, 75 pp. [Available online at http://www.ofcm.gov/jagti/r19-ti-plan/pdf/entire_r19_ti.pdf.]

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, cited 2012: Weather-ready nation—Focus on severe weather. [Available online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/com/weatherreadynation/news/022712_focus_severe.html.]

  • National Weather Service, 2008: Winter storms: The deceptive killers; A preparedness guide. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA/PA 200160 and American Red Cross ARC 4467, 12 pp. [Available online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/winter/resources/Winter_Storms2008.pdf.]

  • National Weather Service, 2009: Windchill terms and definitions. [Available online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/os/windchill/index.shtml.]

  • National Weather Service, 2011: Public information statement: Currently soliciting comments by April 15, 2011 on experimental use of an extreme cold warning product. [Available online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/os/notification/pns11extreme_cold.txt.]

  • National Weather Service, 2012: Experimental extreme cold warning products—Product description document. NOAA, 4 pp. [Available online at http://products.weather.gov/PDD/Exp_Extreme_Cold.pdf.]

  • Panagiotakos, D. B., and Coauthors, 2004: Climatological variations in daily hospital admissions for acute coronary syndromes. Int. J. Cardiol., 94, 229233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Census Bureau, cited 2012: State and county quickfacts—Burleigh County, North Dakota. [Available online at http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/38/38015.html.]

  • U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2007: Target capabilities list—A companion to the National Preparedness Guidelines. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 578 pp. [Available online at http://www.fema.gov/pdf/government/training/tcl.pdf.]

  • Zhang, F. Q., and Coauthors, 2007: An in-person survey investigating public perceptions of and responses to Hurricane Rita forecasts along the Texas coast. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 11771190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 2 2 2
PDF Downloads 1 1 1

Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota

View More View Less
  • 1 National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
  • | 2 NOAA/National Weather Service/Weather Forecast Office, Bismarck, North Dakota
  • | 3 National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Restricted access

Abstract

Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

Corresponding author address: Rebecca S. Noe, National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Hwy., MS F-60, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail: rhn9@cdc.gov

Abstract

Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

Corresponding author address: Rebecca S. Noe, National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Hwy., MS F-60, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail: rhn9@cdc.gov
Save