• Abernethy, D. B., 2000: The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires 1415–1980. Yale University Press, 524 pp.

  • Abrantes, F., S. Lebreiro, T. Rodriques, I. Gil, H. Bartels-Jónsdóttir, P. Oliveira, C. Kissel, and J. O. Grimalt, 2005: Shallow-marine sediment cores record climate variability and earthquake activity off Lisbon (Portugal) for the last 2000 years. Quat. Sci. Rev., 24, 24772494, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.04.009.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Acemoglu, D., and J. A. Robinson, 2012: Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. Crown Publishers, 529 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson, 2002: Reversal of fortune: geography and institutions in the making of the modern world income distribution. Quart. J. Econ., 117, 12311294, doi:10.1162/003355302320935025.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anghie, A., 2004: Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law. Cambridge University Press, 356 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Appleby, A. B., 1981: Epidemics and famine in the Little Ice Age. Climate and History, R. I. Rotberg and T. K. Rabb, Eds., Princeton University Press, 63–83.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bandyopadhyaya, J., 1980: Climate and World Order: An Inquiry into the Natural Cause of Underdevelopment. South Asian Publishers, 178 pp.

  • Bartels-Jónsdóttir, H. B., A. H. L. Voelker, F. G. Abrantes, E. Salqueiro, T. Rodrigues, and K. L. Knudsen, 2015: High-frequency surface water changes in the Tagus prodelta off Lisbon, eastern North Atlantic, during the last two millennia. Mar. Micropaleontol., 117, 1324, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2015.03.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhalme, H. N., and D. A. Mooley, 1980: Large-scale droughts/floods and monsoon circulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 11971211, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<1197:LSDAMC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biosecurity Queensland, 2012: Displaced and lost animals: Flood and heavy rainfall. State of Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry, 1 p. [Available online at https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/68975/factsheet-dis-placed-and-lost-animals-flood-and-heavy-rainfall.pdf.]

  • Biswas, A. K., 1984a: Climate and development. Climate and Development, A. K. Biswas, Ed., Tycooly International Publishing Limited, 1–25.

  • Biswas, A. K., 1984b: Climate and water resources. Climate and Development, A. K. Biswas, Ed., Tycooly International Publishing Limited, 96–116.

  • Blackburn, S., 2005: The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford University Press, 407 pp.

  • Blaut, J. M., 1999: Environmentalism and Eurocentrism. Geogr. Rev., 89, 391408, doi:10.2307/216157.

  • Brook, G. A., L. B. Railsback, L. Scott, N. R. Voarintsoa, and F. Liang, 2015: Late Holocene stalagmite and tufa climate records for Wonderwerk Cave: Relationships between archaeology and climate in southern Africa. Afr. Archaeol. Rev., 32, 669700, doi:10.1007/s10437-015-9210-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brook, T., 2010: The Troubled Empire: China in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 329 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, C., and U. Lall, 2006: Water and economic development: The role of variability and a framework for resilience. Nat. Resour. Forum, 30, 306317, doi:10.1111/j.1477-8947.2006.00118.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Büntgen, U., and Coauthors, 2011: 2500 years of European climate variability and human susceptibility. Science, 331, 578582, doi:10.1126/science.1197175.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buthelezi, J. C., 2002: Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Nelson Mandela: An Ecological Study. Amashenge Publishers, 647 pp.

  • Carr, E. R., G. Fleming, and T. Kalala, 2016: Understanding women’s needs for weather and climate information in agrarian settings: The case of Ngetou Maleck, Senegal. Wea. Climate Soc., 8, 247264, doi:10.1175/WCAS-D-15-0075.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chamberlain, M. E., 2000: The Formation of the European Empires, 1488–1920. Harlow, 267 pp.

  • Chang, H.-L., 1988: Hallucinating the other: Derridean fantasies of Chinese script. University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Center for Twentieth-Century Studies Working Paper 4, 12 pp.

  • Chang, J. H., 1987: Intertropical convergence zone. The Encyclopedia of Climatology, J. E. Oliver and R. W. Fairbridge, Eds., Van Nostrand Reinhold, 516 –518.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, F., and Coauthors, 2015: East Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability since the last deglaciation. Sci. Rep., 5, 11 186, doi:10.1038/srep11186.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Claiborne, R., 1970: Climate, Man, and History. W.W. Norton, 444 pp.

  • Coffel, E., and R. Horton, 2015: Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation. Wea. Climate Soc., 7, 94102, doi:10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00026.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collier, P., 2007: The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. Oxford University Press, 295 pp.

  • Connolly, C., 1969: Black man’s burden. The Sunday Times, 23 February.

  • Coombes, P., and K. Barber, 2005: Environmental determinism in Holocene research: causality or coincidence? Area, 37, 303311, doi:10.1111/j.1475-4762.2005.00634.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craven, M., 2015: Between law and history: The Berlin Conference of 1884-185 and the logic of free trade. London Rev. Int. Law, 3, 3159, doi:10.1093/lril/lrv002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crosby, A. W., 1993: Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge University Press, 368 pp.

  • Cullen, H. M., P. B. deMenocal, S. Hemming, G. Hemming, F. H. Brown, T. Guilderson, and F. Sirocko, 2000: Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep sea. Geology, 28, 379382, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<379:CCATCO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Derrida, J., 1974: Of Grammatology. Johns Hopkins University Press, 360 pp.

  • Diamond, J., 1997: Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W.W. Norton & Company, 480 pp.

  • Dirlik, A., 2007: Global South: Predicament and promise. Global South, 1, 1223.

  • Dollar, D., and A. Kraay, 2003: Institutions, trade, and growth. J. Monetary Econ., 50, 133162, doi:10.1016/S0304-3932(02)00206-4.

  • Dreyer, E. L., 2007: Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405–1433. Pearson Longman, 238 pp.

  • Drislane, R., and Parkinson, G., 2016: Online Dictionary of the Social Sciences. Accessed 16 December 2016. [Available online at http://bitbucket.iaacp.org.]

  • Easterly, W., and R. Levine, 2003: Tropics, germs, and crops: How endowments influence economic development. J. Monetary Econ., 50, 339, doi:10.1016/S0304-3932(02)00200-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ember, C. R., T. A. Adem, I. Skoggard, and E. C. Jones, 2012: Livestock raiding and rainfall variability in northwestern Kenya. Civ. Wars, 14, 159181, doi:10.1080/13698249.2012.679497.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Engerman, S. L., 2003: Comment on: Tropics, germs and crops: How endowments influence economic development. J. Monetary Econ., 50, 4147, doi:10.1016/S0304-3932(02)00199-X.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faye, M. L., J. W. McArthur, J. D. Sachs, and T. Snow, 2004: The challenges facing landlocked countries. J. Hum. Dev., 5, 3168, doi:10.1080/14649880310001660201.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferranti, E., L. Chapman, C. Lowe, S. McCullouch, D. Jaroszweski, and A. Quinn, 2016: Heat-related failures on southeast England’s railway network: Insights and implications for heat risk management. Wea. Climate Soc., 8, 177191, doi:10.1175/WCAS-D-15-0068.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fieldhouse, D. K., 1967: The Colonial Empires: A Comparative Survey from the Eighteenth Century. Delacorte Press, 450 p.

  • Frenkel, S., 1992: Geography, empire, and environmental determinism. Geogr. Rev., 82, 143153, doi:10.2307/215428.

  • Gallup, J. L., J. D. Sachs, and A. D. Mellinger, 1998: Geography and economic development. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 6849, 81 pp., doi:10.3386/w6849.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, W. R., 1965: Rainfall, runoff, and return. Agricultural Meteorology, Meteor. Monogr., No. 28, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 138148.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Geiger, R., 1954: Klassifikation der Klimate nach W. Köppen. Landolt-Börnstein – Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, Alte Serie 3, Springer, 603–607.

  • Glantz, M. H., 2003: Climate and society. Handbook of Weather, Climate, and Water, T. D. Potter and B. R. Colman, Eds., Wiley-Interscience, 711–718.

  • Gómez-Pinilla, F., 2008: Brain foods: The effects of nutrients on brain function. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 9, 568578, doi:10.1038/nrn2421.

  • Goucher, C. L., C. A. Le Guin, and L. A. Walton, 1998: In the Balance: Themes in Global History. Vol. 2, McGraw-Hill, 782 pp.

  • Granger, O., 1987: Precipitation distribution. The Encyclopedia of Climatology, J. E. Oliver and R. W. Fairbridge, Eds., Van Nostrand Reinhold, 690–697.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Greene, S., L. Kalkstein, D. M. Mills, and J. Samenow, 2011: An examination of climate change on extreme heat events and climate–mortality relationships in large U.S. cities. Wea. Climate Soc., 3, 281292, doi:10.1175/WCAS-D-11-00055.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrison, P., 2005: “Fill the Earth and subdue it”: Biblical warrants for colonization in seventeenth century England. J. Relig. Hist., 29, 324, doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.2005.00258.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Headrick, D. R., 1981: Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford University Press, 221 pp.

  • Hobson, J. A., 1902: Imperialism: A Study. James Pott and Co., 386 pp.

  • Hoffman, P. T., 2015: Why Did Europe Conquer the World? Princeton University Press, 272 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Howe, S., 2002: Empire: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 139 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hulme, M., 2011: Reducing the future to climate: a story of climate determinism and reductionism. Osiris, 26, 245266, doi:10.1086/661274.

  • Huntington, E., 1915: Civilization and Climate. Yale University Press, 333 pp.

  • Huntington, E., 1922: Civilization and Climate. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, 333 pp.

  • Huntington, E., 1924: Civilization and Climate. 3rd ed. Yale University Press, 453 pp.

  • Hutchinson, J., H. L. Manning, and H. G. Farbrother, 1958: On the characterization of tropical rainstorms in relation to runoff and percolation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 84, 250258, doi:10.1002/qj.49708436106.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IMF, 2015: International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook Database. Accessed 13 March 2016. [Available online at www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2015/02/weodata/weoselgr.aspx.]

  • Jackson, D. B., and K. M. Beaver, 2015: The role of adolescent nutrition and physical activity in the prediction of verbal intelligence during early adulthood: A genetically informed analysis of twin pairs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 12, 385401, doi:10.3390/ijerph120100385.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnstone, W. C., 1937: The status of foreign concessions and settlements in the Treaty Ports of China. Amer. Polit. Sci. Rev., 31, 942948, doi:10.2307/1947920.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, E. L., 1981: The European Miracle: Environments, Economies, and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia. Cambridge University Press, 279 pp.

  • Jones, E. L., 2003: The European Miracle: Environments, Economies, and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, 301 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kalff, J., J. A. Downing, and T. T. Smith, 1985: Rainfall, agriculture, livestock and human density in the dry regions of Kenya. J. Arid Environ., 9, 173183.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kamarck, A. M., 1976: The Tropics and Economic Development. Johns Hopkins University Press, 113 pp.

  • Kgosikoma, O. E., and N. Batisani, 2014: Livestock population dynamics and pastoral communities adaptation to rainfall variability in communal lands of Kgalagadi South, Botswana. Pastoralism, 4, 19, doi:10.1186/s13570-014-0019-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinosita, T., 1983: Runoff and flood characteristics in some humid tropical regions. Hydrology of Humid Tropical Regions, R. Keller, Ed., IAHS Publ. 140, 53–62.

  • Kolawole, O. D., M. R. Mothsolapheko, B. N. Ngwenya, G. Mmopelwa, and D. L. Kgathi, 2016: Climate variability and rural livelihoods: how households perceive and adapt to climatic shocks in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Wea. Climate Soc., 8, 131145, doi:10.1175/WCAS-D-15-0019.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Köppen, W., 1900: Versuch einer Klassifikation der Klimate, vorzugsweise nach ihren Beziehungen zur Pflanzenwelt. Geogr. Z., 6, 593611.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteor. Z., 15, 259263, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landes, D. S., 1998: The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor. W.W. Norton, 650 pp.

  • Lee, D. H. K., 1957: Climate and Economic Development in the Tropics. Harper and Brothers, 182 pp.

  • Lenin, V. I., 1917: Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. Pathfinder Press, 50 pp.

  • Levathes, L. E., 1994: When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne 1405–1433. Simon and Schuster, 252 pp.

  • Linacre, E., and B. Geerts, 1997: Climates and Weather Explained. Routlege, 432 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Livingstone, D. N., 2011: Environmental determinism. The SAGE Handbook of Geographical Knowledge, J. A. Agnew and D. N. Livingstone, Eds., Sage, 368–380.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lüdemann, S., 2014: Politics of Deconstruction: A New Introduction to Jacques Derrida. Stanford University Press, 157 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Markham, S. F., 1947: Climate and the Energy of Nations. Oxford University Press, 240 pp.

  • Masike, S., and P. Urich, 2009: The projected cost of climate change to livestock water supply and implications in Kgatleng District, Botswana. World J. Agric. Sci., 5, 597603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGinty, A., T. L. Thurow, and C. A. Taylor Jr., 1991: Improving rainfall effectiveness on rangeland. Texas Agricultural Extension Service Publication L-5029, 6 pp.

  • Montesquieu, C., 1989: The Spirit of the Laws. A. M. Cohler, B. C. Miller, and H. S. Stone, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 757 pp.

  • New, M., M. Hulme, and P. Jones, 1999: Representing twentieth-century space–time climate variability. Part I: Development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. J. Climate, 12, 829856, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0829:RTCSTC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pagden, A., 1998: The struggle for legitimacy and the image of empire in the Atlantic to c. 1700. The Origins of Empire, N. Canny, Ed., Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, 34–54.

  • Paredes-Canilao, N., 2005: A nascent paradigm for non-Western discourse studies: An epilogue. Read the Cultural Other: Forms of Otherness in the Discourses of Hong Kong’s Decolonization, Shi-Xu, M. Kienpointner, and J. Servaes, Eds., Mouton de Gruyter, 211–237.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, G., 1988: The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West 1500–1800. Cambridge University Press, 234 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Pederson, N., A. E. Hessl, N. Baatarbileg, K. J. Anchukaitis, and N. Di Cosmo, 2014: Pluvials, droughts, the Mongol Empire, and modern Mongolia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, 43754379, doi:10.1073/pnas.1318677111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peel, M. C., B. L. Finlayson, and T. A. McMahon, 2007: Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 16331644, doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peet, R., 1985: The social origins of environmental determinism. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr., 75, 309333, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1985.tb00069.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Railsback, L. B., 2003: An earth scientist’s periodic table of the elements and their ions. Geology, 31, 737740, doi:10.1130/G19542.1.

  • Railsback, L. B., 2016: Fundamentals of Quaternary science. Accessed 31 August 2016. [Available online at http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/FQS/FQS.html.]

  • Railsback, L. B., and Coauthors, 2011: Petrographic and isotopic evidence for Holocene long-term climate change and shorter-term environmental shifts from a stalagmite from the Serra do Courel of northwestern Spain, and implications for climatic history across Europe and the Mediterranean. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 305, 172184, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.02.030.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Railsback, L. B., G. A. Brook, F. Liang, E. Marais, E. Cheng, and R. L. Edwards, 2016: A multi-proxy stalagmite record from northwestern Namibia of regional drying with increasing global-scale warmth over the last 47 kyr: The interplay of a globally shifting ITCZ with regional currents, winds, and rainfall. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 461, 109121, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.08.014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rehfeld, K., N. Marwan, S. F. M. Breitenbach, and J. Kurths, 2013: Late Holocene Asian summer monsoon dynamics from small but complex networks of paleoclimate data. Climate Dyn., 41, 319, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1448-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reinhard, W., 2011: A Short History of Colonialism. Manchester University Press, 308 pp.

  • Reynolds, W., 2002: Loyal to the end: The fourth British Empire, Australia and the bomb, 1943–57. Aust. Hist. Stud., 33, 3854, doi:10.1080/10314610208596200.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, P. J., and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1999: Contemporary Climatology. Longman/Pearson, 317 pp.

  • Rodrik, D., A. Subramanian, and F. Trebbi, 2002: Institutions rule: The primacy of institutions over geography and integration in economic development. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 9305, 46 pp., doi:10.3386/w9305.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Rodrik, D., A. Subramanian, and F. Trebbi, 2004: Institutions rule: The primary of institutions over geography and integration of economic development. J. Econ. Growth, 9, 131165, doi:10.1023/B:JOEG.0000031425.72248.85.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Russell, P. E., 2000: Prince Henry ‘the Navigator’: A Life. Yale University Press, 448 pp.

  • Ryan, T., 2007: The nineteenth-century garden: Imperialism, subsistence, and subversion in Leslie Marmon Silko’s Gardens in the Dunes. Stud. Amer. Indian Lit., 19, 115132, doi:10.1353/ail.2007.0025.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sachs, J. D., 2001: Tropical underdevelopment. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 8119, 38 pp., doi:10.3386/w8119.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Sachs, J. D., 2003: Institutions don’t rule: Direct effects of geography on per capita income. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 9490, 12 pp., doi:10.3386/w9490.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Said, E. W., 1993: Culture and Imperialism. A. A. Knopf, 380 pp.

  • Scammell, G. V., 1981: The World Encompassed: The First European Maritime Empires c. 800–1650. University of California Press, 538 pp.

  • Schaible, U. E., and S. H. E. Kaufmann, 2007: Malnutrition and infection: complex mechanisms and global impacts. PLoS Med., 4, e115, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schumpeter, J. A., 1918: The sociology of imperialism. Modern History Sourcebook, accessed 24 December 2016. [Available online at http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1918schumpeter1.html.]

  • Semple, E. C., 1911: Influences of Geographic Environment, on the Basis of Ratzel’s System of Anthropo-Geography. H. Holt and Co., 683 pp.

  • Sluyter, A., 2003: Neo-environmental determinism, intellectual damage control, and nature/society science. Antipode, 35, 813817, doi:10.1046/j.1467-8330.2003.00354.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sokol Jurkovic, R. S., and Z. Pasaric, 2013: Spatial variability of annual precipitation using globally gridded data sets from 1951 to 2000. Int. J. Climatol., 33, 690698, doi:10.1002/joc.3462.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spate, O. H. K., 1952: Toynbee and Huntington: A study in determinism. Geogr. J., 118, 406424, doi:10.2307/1791278.

  • Steinweg, C., and W. J. Gutowski Jr., 2015: Projected changes in greater St. Louis summer heat stress in NARCCAP simulations. Wea. Climate Soc., 7, 159168, doi:10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00041.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strong, R., 2006: A vision of an Anglican imperialism: The annual sermons of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 1701–1714. J. Relig. Hist., 30, 175198, doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.2006.00447.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Talhelm, T., X. Zhang, S. Oishi, D. Duan, X. Lan, and S. Kitayama, 2014: Large-scale psychological differences within China explained by rice versus wheat agriculture. Science, 344, 603608, doi:10.1126/science.1246850.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, R., 1967: Determinism. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, P. Edwards, Ed., Macmillan, 359–373.

  • Van de Vliert, E., 2009: Climate, Affluence, and Culture. Cambridge University Press, 253 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wahlqvist, M. L., 1981: Nutrition and the brain. Food and Nutrition in Australia, M. L. Wahlqvist, Ed., Methuen Australia Limited, 373–376.

  • Wallerstein, I., 1974: The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. University of California Press, 410 pp.

  • Wang, P., 2009: Global monsoon in a geological perspective. Chin. Sci. Bull., 54, 11131136.

  • Wang, S.-T., 1998: The Conference of Berlin and British ‘New’ Imperialism, 1884-85. Hist. Inquiry, 22, 191230.

  • Watts, S., 1997: Epidemics and History: Disease, Power, and Imperialism. Yale University Press, 400 pp.

  • Weiss, H., M.-A. Courty, W. Wetterstrom, F. Guichard, L. Senior, R. Meadow, and A. Curnow, 1993: The genesis and collapse of third millennium north Mesopotamian civilization. Science, 261, 9951004, doi:10.1126/science.261.5124.995.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wikipedia, 2016: Environmental determinism. Accessed 3 September 2016. [Available online at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_determinism.]

  • Wood, R. A., Ed., 1998: The Weather Almanac. 8th ed. Gale Research, 741 pp.

  • Yi, L., H. Yu, X. Xu, J. Yao, Q. Su, and J. Ge, 2010: Exploratory precipitation in north-central China during the past four centuries. Acta Geol. Sin., 84, 223229, doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2010.00184.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yihui, D., and J. C. L. Chan, 2005: The East Asian summer monsoon: An overview. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 89, 117142, doi:10.1007/s00703-005-0125-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, X., P. Zhao, G. Liu, and T. Zhou, 2011: Characteristics of decadal-centennial-scale changes in East Asian summer monsoon circulation and precipitation during the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age and in the present day. Chin. Sci. Bull., 56, 30033011, doi:10.1007/s11434-011-4651-4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 3 3 3
PDF Downloads 3 3 3

Rain, Riches, and Empire: The Relationship between Nations Ruling Distant Lands, Nations of Great Wealth, and Regions of Regular Moderate Atmospheric Precipitation

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
Restricted access

Abstract

Two of the great questions of human history and economics are why some nations held far-flung empires and why some presently enjoy great wealth. One factor that should be included in the inevitably multifactorial answer to these questions is regular moderate precipitation (precipitation with an average rate between 30 and 120 mm for each month). Only a small proportion of Earth’s surface has regular moderate precipitation, and most of that area is in Europe and eastern North America. Strikingly, of the 13 nations that held geographically discontinuous multicontinental transoceanic empires, 12 overlap with regions of regular moderate precipitation. Similarly, of the 20 nations with the greatest per capita GDP in 2015, 16 coincide with regions of regular moderate precipitation. These relationships are presumably rooted in the greater success, or lesser inhibition, of human construction of infrastructure, husbandry of livestock, and cultivation of crops, some combination of which likely allowed industrialization, projection of geopolitical power, and accumulation of wealth. One instructive example is that of China, which has a climate superficially like that of Europe and eastern North America but no regions of regular moderate rainfall, and which neither developed an overseas empire nor is among the world’s nations with greatest per capita GDP. Furthermore, concentration of nations holding empires and wealth in the Northern Hemisphere and their absence from the south can be linked to the coincidence that the Southern Hemisphere’s latitudinal zone of regular moderate rainfall is over the Southern Ocean, where there is little land on which human societies could have enjoyed the benefits of that supportive climate.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: L. Bruce Railsback, rlsbk@gly.uga.edu

Abstract

Two of the great questions of human history and economics are why some nations held far-flung empires and why some presently enjoy great wealth. One factor that should be included in the inevitably multifactorial answer to these questions is regular moderate precipitation (precipitation with an average rate between 30 and 120 mm for each month). Only a small proportion of Earth’s surface has regular moderate precipitation, and most of that area is in Europe and eastern North America. Strikingly, of the 13 nations that held geographically discontinuous multicontinental transoceanic empires, 12 overlap with regions of regular moderate precipitation. Similarly, of the 20 nations with the greatest per capita GDP in 2015, 16 coincide with regions of regular moderate precipitation. These relationships are presumably rooted in the greater success, or lesser inhibition, of human construction of infrastructure, husbandry of livestock, and cultivation of crops, some combination of which likely allowed industrialization, projection of geopolitical power, and accumulation of wealth. One instructive example is that of China, which has a climate superficially like that of Europe and eastern North America but no regions of regular moderate rainfall, and which neither developed an overseas empire nor is among the world’s nations with greatest per capita GDP. Furthermore, concentration of nations holding empires and wealth in the Northern Hemisphere and their absence from the south can be linked to the coincidence that the Southern Hemisphere’s latitudinal zone of regular moderate rainfall is over the Southern Ocean, where there is little land on which human societies could have enjoyed the benefits of that supportive climate.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: L. Bruce Railsback, rlsbk@gly.uga.edu
Save