• Bader, M. J., G. S. Forbes, J. R. Grant, R. B. E. Lilley, and A. J. Waters, 1995: Images in Weather Forecasting. Cambridge University Press, 499 pp.

  • Baeck, M. L., and J. A. Smith, 1995: Climatological analysis of manually digitized radar data for the United States. Water Resour. Res.,31, 3033–3049.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bluestein, H. R., and M. H. Jain, 1985: Formation of mesoscale lines of precipitation: Severe squall lines in Oklahoma during the spring. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 1711–1732.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bradley, A. A., and J. A. Smith, 1994: The hydrometeorological environment of extreme rainstorms in the southern plains of the United States. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 1418–1431.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, R. A., and R. J. Meitin, 1994: Evolution and morphology of two splitting thunderstorms with dominant left-moving members. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 2052–2067.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Burgess, D. W., and L. R. Lemon, 1990: Severe thunderstorm detection by radar. Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 619–647.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Caracena, F., R. A. Maddox, L. R. Hoxit, and C. F. Chappell, 1979:Mesoanalysis of the Big Thompson Storm. Mon. Wea. Rev.,107, 1–17.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chappell, C. F., 1986: Quasi-stationary convective events. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 289–310.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Coughlan, M., and R. Avissar, 1996: The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP): An overview. J. Geophys. Res.,101(D3), 7139–7147.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Dixon, M., and G. Wiener, 1993: TITAN: Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis, and Nowcasting—A radar-based methodology. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,10, 785–797.

  • Doswell, C. A., III, 1980: Synoptic-scale environments associated with high plains severe thunderstorms. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,61, 1388–1400.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, H. E. Brooks, and R. A. Maddox, 1996: Flash flood forecasting:An ingredients-based methodology. Wea. Forecasting,11, 560–581.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Foote, G. B., and H. W. Frank, 1983: Case study of a hailstorm in Colorado. Part III: Airflow from triple-Doppler measurements. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 686–707.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hane, C. E., 1986: Extratropical squall lines and rainbands. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 359–389.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., B. F. Smull, and P. Dodge, 1990: Mesoscale organization of springtime rainstorms in Oklahoma. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 613–654.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Klazura, G. E., and D. A. Imy, 1993: A description of the initial set of analysis products available from the NEXRAD WSR-88D system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,74, 1293–1311.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lopez, R. E., R. Ortiz, W. D. Otto, and R. L. Holle, 1991: The lightning activity and precipitation yield of convective cloud systems in central Florida. Preprints, 25th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Paris, France, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 907–910.

  • Maddox, R. A., C. F. Chappell, and L. R. Hoxit, 1979: Synoptic and meso-alpha scale aspects of flash flood events. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,60, 115–123.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Moller, A. R., C. A. Doswell III, and R. Przybylinski, 1990: High- precipitation supercells: A conceptual model and documentation. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, AB, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 52–57.

  • ——, ——, M. P. Foster, and G. R. Woodall, 1994: The operational recognition of supercell thunderstorm environments and storm structures. Wea. Forecasting,9, 327–347.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Mueller, C. K., and R. E. Carbone, 1987: Dynamics of a thunderstorm outflow. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 1879–1898.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, S. P., 1987: The hybrid multicellular–supercellular storm—An efficient hail producer. Part II: General characteristics and implications for hail growth. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 2060–2073.

  • ——, and N. C. Knight, 1987: The hybrid multicellular–supercellular storm—An efficient hail producer. Part I: An archetypal example. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 2042–2059.

  • Nettleton, L., S. Daud, R. Neitzel, C. Burghart, W. C. Lee, and P. Hildebrand, 1993: SOLO: A program to peruse and edit radar data. Preprints, 26th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Norman, OK, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 338–339.

  • Nielsen, K. E., S. J. Goodman, and D. E. Buechler, 1990: Cloud-to- ground lightning and rainfall volumes in mesoscale convective systems. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, AB, Canada, 634–638.

  • NOAA, 1995: The Fort Worth Dallas hailstorm and flash flood May 5, 1995. National Disaster Survey Rep., 38 pp. [Available from National Weather Service Southern Region, Fort Worth, TX 76102-6171.].

  • Purdom, J. F. W., 1982: Subjective interpretations of geostationary satellite data for nowcasting. Nowcasting, K. A. Browning, Ed., Academic Press, 149–166.

  • Schwarz, F. K., 1970: The unprecedented rains in Virginia associated with the remnants of Hurricane Camille. Mon. Wea. Rev.,98, 851–859.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J. A., D. J. Seo, M. L. Baeck, and M. D. Hudlow, 1996a: An intercomparison study of NEXRAD precipitation estimates. Water Resour. Res.,32, 2035–2046.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, M. L. Baeck, M. Steiner, and A. J. Miller, 1996b: Catastrophic rainfall from an upslope thunderstorm in the Central Appalachians: The Rapidan storm of June 27, 1995. Water Resour. Res.,32, 3099–3113.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Starks, P. J., and K. S. Humes, 1996: Hydrology data report Washita’94. National Agricultural Water Quality Laboratory Rep. NAWQL 96-1, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Durant, OK, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 227 pp. [Available from USDA, WQ Laboratory, Durant, OK 74702.].

  • Weckwerth, T. M., and R. M. Wakimoto, 1992: The initiation and organization of convective cells atop a cold-air outflow boundary. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 2169–2187.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Weisman, M. L., and J. B. Klemp, 1986: Characteristics of isolated convective storms. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 331–358.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, J. W., and W. E. Schreiber, 1986: Initiation of convective storms at radar-observed boundary-layer convergence lines. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 2516–2536.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and C. K. Mueller, 1993: Nowcasts of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Wea. Forecasting,8, 113–131.

  • ——, G. B. Foote, N. A. Crook, J. C. Fankhauser, C. G. Wade, J. D. Tuttle, C. K. Mueller, and S. K. Krueger, 1992: The role of boundary-layer convergence zones and horizontal rolls in the initiation of thunderstorms: A case study. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 1785–1815.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Witt, A., 1990: A hail core aloft detection algorithm. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, AB, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 232–235.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 106 25 4
PDF Downloads 21 14 0

Heavy Rainfall: Contrasting Two Concurrent Great Plains Thunderstorms

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Civil Engineering and Operations Research, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
Restricted access

Abstract

Measurement and forecasting of heavy rainfall requires interpretation of the small differences in the storm environment that distinguish a major flood-producing rainfall event from a relatively harmless storm system. This case study will examine some of the small differences in the storm environment that lead to a heavy rainfall event. On 8 July 1994 two storm systems developed in close proximity to each other in central Oklahoma. One of the storms developed into a squall line and produced low storm total precipitation accumulations. The other was a slow-moving multicellular storm that produced storm total precipitation of more than 130 mm and small stream flooding. The storms exhibited contrasting measurement errors in the operational WSR-88D rainfall products, with underestimation for the heavy rain event and overestimation for the squall line. The interactions of synoptic, mesoscale, and storm-scale processes for the 8 July storms are examined through analyses of WSR- 88D reflectivity and Doppler velocity observations, surface and upper-air observations from the GEWEX–GCIP Integrated Systems Test experiment, and GOES observations from visible, IR, and water vapor channels. This case study gives a unique opportunity to analyze the differences and similarities of the prestorm environment that lead to different storm structures and rainfall accumulations. Analyses also illustrate storm-scale and mesoscale processes that play a major role in determining the accuracy of WSR-88D rainfall estimates.

Corresponding author address: Dr. James A. Smith, Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544.

Email: jsmith@radap.princeton.edu

Abstract

Measurement and forecasting of heavy rainfall requires interpretation of the small differences in the storm environment that distinguish a major flood-producing rainfall event from a relatively harmless storm system. This case study will examine some of the small differences in the storm environment that lead to a heavy rainfall event. On 8 July 1994 two storm systems developed in close proximity to each other in central Oklahoma. One of the storms developed into a squall line and produced low storm total precipitation accumulations. The other was a slow-moving multicellular storm that produced storm total precipitation of more than 130 mm and small stream flooding. The storms exhibited contrasting measurement errors in the operational WSR-88D rainfall products, with underestimation for the heavy rain event and overestimation for the squall line. The interactions of synoptic, mesoscale, and storm-scale processes for the 8 July storms are examined through analyses of WSR- 88D reflectivity and Doppler velocity observations, surface and upper-air observations from the GEWEX–GCIP Integrated Systems Test experiment, and GOES observations from visible, IR, and water vapor channels. This case study gives a unique opportunity to analyze the differences and similarities of the prestorm environment that lead to different storm structures and rainfall accumulations. Analyses also illustrate storm-scale and mesoscale processes that play a major role in determining the accuracy of WSR-88D rainfall estimates.

Corresponding author address: Dr. James A. Smith, Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544.

Email: jsmith@radap.princeton.edu

Save