• Ashenden, R., and J. D. Marwitz, 1997: Turboprop aircraft performance response to various environmental conditions. J. Aircraft,34, 278–287.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, M., R. Treadon, and S. Contorno, 1994: Precipitation type prediction using a decision tree approach with NMC’s mesoscale eta model. Preprints, 10th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 30–31.

  • Bendel, W. B., and D. Paton, 1981: A review of the effect of ice storms on the power industry. J. Appl. Meteor.,20, 1445–1449.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bernstein, B. C., and M. K. Politovich, 1996: Formation of freezing drizzle via shear-enhanced collision-coalescence near cloud base. Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Clouds and Precipitation, Zurich, Switzerland, International Commission on Clouds and Precipitation, 109–112.

  • ——, and B. G. Brown, 1997: A climatology of supercooled large drop conditions based upon surface observations and pilot reports of icing. Preprints, Seventh Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, Long Beach, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82–87.

  • ——, M. K. Politovich, and T. A. Omeron, 1995: Mesoscale aspects of a freezing drizzle, snowfall and aircraft icing event during WISP91. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 364–369.

  • ——, T. A. Omeron, M. K. Politovich, and F. McDonough, 1998: Surface weather features associated with freezing precipitation and severe in-flight aircraft icing. Atmos. Res.,46, 57–73.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, T. P. Ratvasky, D. R. Miller, and F. McDonough, 1999: Freezing rain as an in-flight icing hazard. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 38–42.

  • Bocchieri, J., 1980: The objective use of upper air soundings to specify precipitation type. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 596–603.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bosart, L., 1975: New England coastal frontogenesis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,101, 957–978.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cober, S. G., G. A. Isaac, and J. W. Strapp, 1995: Aircraft icing measurements in east coast winter storms. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 88–100.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, J. W. Strapp, and G. A. Isaac, 1996: An example of supercooled drizzle drops formed through a collision-coalescence process. J. Appl. Meteor.,35, 2250–2260.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, G. A. Isaac, A. V. Korolev, and J. W. Strapp, 1999: Measurements of aircraft icing environments which include supercooled large drops. 37th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper AIAA 99-0494, 11 pp.

  • Cooper, W. A., 1989: Effects of variable droplet growth histories on droplet size distributions. Part I: Theory. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 1301–1311.

  • ——, W. R. Sand, M. K. Politovich, and D. L. Veal, 1984: Effects of icing on preformance of research aircraft. J. Aircraft,21, 708–715.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cortinas, J. V., 2000: A climatology of freezing rain in the Great Lakes region of North America. Mon. Wea. Rev.,128, 3574–3588.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cotton, W. R., G. Thompson, and P. W. Mielke Jr., 1994: Real-time mesoscale prediction on workstations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,75, 349–362.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Czys, R. R., R. W. Scott, K. C. Tang, R. W. Przybylinski, and M. E. Sabones, 1996: A physically based, nondimensional parameter for discriminating between locations of freezing rain and ice pellets. Wea. Forecasting,11, 591–598.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Forbes, G. S., R. A. Anthes, and D. W. Thomson, 1987: Synoptic and mesoscale aspects of an Appalachian ice storm associated with cold-air damming. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 564–591.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gay, D. A., and R. E. Davis, 1993: Freezing rain and sleet climatology of the southeastern USA. Climate Res.,3, 209–220.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hallett, J., and S. C. Mossop, 1974: Production of secondary ice particles during the riming process. Nature,249, 26–28.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hanesiak, J. M., and R. E. Stewart, 1995: The mesoscale and microscale structure of a severe ice pellet storm. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 3144–3162.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Huffman, G. J., and G. A. Norman Jr., 1988: The supercooled warm rain process and the specification of freezing precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 2172–2182.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Huschke, R. E., Ed., 1959: Glossary of Meteorology. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 638 pp.

  • Isaac, G. A., A. Korolev, J. W. Strapp, S. G. Cober, A. Tremblay, and R. A. Stuart, 1996: Freezing drizzle formation mechanisms. Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Clouds and Precipitation, Zurich, Switzerland, International Commission on Clouds and Precipitation, 11–14.

  • ——, S. G. Cober, A. V. Korolev, J. W. Strapp, A. Tremblay, and D. Marcotte, 1999: Canadian Freezing Drizzle Experiment. 37th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper AIAA 99-0492, 10 pp.

  • Jeck, R. K., 1996: Representative values of icing-related variables aloft in freezing rain and freezing drizzle. Proc. Int. Conf. on In-flight Icing, Vol. II, Springfield, VA, Federal Aviation Administration, DOT/FAA/AR-96/81, 57–68.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kajikawa, M., K. Sakurai, and K. Kikuchi, 1988: Characteristic features of supercooled raindrops in the midwinter season of arctic Canada. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,66, 393–398.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, W., 1951: Meteorological aspects of aircraft icing. Compendium of Meteorology, T. F. Malone, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1197–1203.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Livingston, J., R. Miller, P. Frisbie, D. Rife, and T. Carter, 1998: Icestorms in eastern Washington and northern Idaho; climatology and a significant event. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Weather and Forecasting, Phoenix, AZ, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 378–380.

  • Martner, B. E., R. M. Rauber, R. M. Rasmussen, E. T. Prater, and M. K. Ramamurthy, 1992: Impacts of a destructive and well-observed cross-country winter storm. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 169–172.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, J. B. Snider, R. J. Zamora, G. P. Byrd, T. A. Niziol, and P. I. Joe, 1993: A remote-sensing view of a freezing rain storm. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 2562–2577.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Marwitz, J., and J. Toth, 1993: The Front Range blizzard of 1990. Part I: Synoptic and mesoscale structure. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 402–415.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, M. Politovich, B. Bernstein, F. Ralph, P. Neiman, R. Ashenden, and J. Bresch, 1997: Meteorological conditions associated with the ATR-72 aircraft accident near Roselawn, Indiana, on 31 October 1994. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 41–52.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • McDonough, F., and B. C. Bernstein, 1999: Combining satellite, radar, and surface observations with model data to create a better aircraft icing diagnosis. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 467–471.

  • McKay, G. A., and H. A. Thompson, 1969: Estimating the hazard of ice accretion in Canada from climatological data. J. Appl. Meteor.,8, 927–935.

  • Miller, D., T. Ratvasky, B. Bernstein, F. McDonough, and J. W. Strapp, 1998: NASA/FAA/NCAR supercooled large droplet icing flight research: Summary of winter 96–97 flight operations. 36th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper AIAA 98-0557, 20 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Mossop, S. C., 1976: Production of secondary ice particles during the growth of graupel by riming. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,102, 45–57.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Nielsen, J. W., and P. P. Neilley, 1990: The vertical structure of New England coastal fronts. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 1793–1807.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • NOAA, 1993: Solar and Meteorological Surface Observation Network 1961–1990. Vols. 1–3, CD-ROMs. [Available from National Climatic Data Center, 151 Patton Rd., Asheville, NC 28801-5001.].

  • ——, 1996: Radiosonde Data of North America 1946–1995. CD-ROMs. [Available from National Climatic Data Center, 151 Patton Rd., Asheville NC, 28801-5001.].

  • Ohtake, T., 1963: Hemispheric investigations of warm rain by radiosonde data. J. Appl. Meteor.,2, 594–607.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Paull, G., and E. Hagy, 1999: Historical overview of in-flight icing accidents. Management Consulting Research Federal Tech. Rep. TR-9854/01-1, 43 pp. [Available from Management Consulting Research Federal, Inc., 175 Middlesex Turnpike, Bedford, MA 01730.].

  • Pike, W. S., 1995: Extreme warm frontal icing on 25 February 1994 causes an aircraft accident near Uttoxeter. Meteor. Appl.,2, 273–279.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Pobanz, B. M., J. D. Marwitz, and M. K. Politovich, 1994: Conditions associated with large-drop regions. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 1366–1372.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Politovich, M. K., 1989: Aircraft icing caused by large supercooled droplets. J. Appl. Meteor.,28, 856–868.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and B. C. Bernstein, 1995: Production and depletion of supercooled liquid water in a Colorado winter storm. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 2631–2648.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Prater, E. T., and A. A. Borho, 1992: Doppler radar wind and reflectivity signatures with overrunning and freezing-rain episodes:preliminary results. J. Appl. Meteor.,31, 1350–1358.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, R. M., B. C. Bernstein, M. Murakami, G. Stossmeister, J. Reisner, and B. Stankov, 1995: The 1990 Valentine’s Day arctic outbreak. Part I: Mesoscale and microscale structure and evolution of a Colorado Front Range shallow upslope cloud. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 1481–1511.

  • Rauber, R. M., M. K. Ramamurthy, and A. Tokay, 1994: Synoptic and mesoscale structure of a severe freezing rain event: The St. Valentine’s Day ice storm. Wea. Forecasting,9, 183–208.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, L. S. Olthoff, M. K. Ramamurthy, and K. E. Kunkel, 2000: The relative importance of warm rain and melting processes in freezing precipitation events. J. Appl. Meteor.,39, 1185–1195.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Regan, M., 1998: Canadian ice storm 1998. WMO Bull.,47, 250–256.

  • Reitan, C. H., 1974: Frequencies of cyclones and cyclogenesis for North America, 1951–1970. Mon. Wea. Rev.,102, 861–868.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Richwien, B. A., 1980: The damming effect of the southern Appalachians. Natl. Wea. Dig.,5, 2–12.

  • Robbins, C. C., 1998: An investigation of the local and synoptic environments associated with freezing rain in the contiguous United States. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Meteorology, Graduate College, University of Oklahoma, 113 pp. [Available from School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, 100 E. Boyd, Room 1310, Norman, OK 73019.].

  • ——, and J. V. Cortinas, 1996: A climatology of FZRA in the contiguous United States: Preliminary results. Preprints, 15th Conf. on Weather and Forecasting, Norfolk, VA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 124–126.

  • Sand, W. R., and C. J. Biter, 1999: Meteorology surrounding the Roselawn accident. 37th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exlhibit, Reno, NV, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper AIAA 99-0496, 10 pp.

  • ——, W. A. Cooper, M. K. Politovich, and D. L. Veal, 1984: Icing conditions encountered by a research aircraft. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,23, 1427–1440.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, R. E., 1985: Precipitation types in winter storms. Pure Appl. Geophys.,123, 597–609.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and P. King, 1987: Freezing precipitation in winter storms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 1270–1279.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, C. A. Lin, and S. R. Macpherson, 1990: The structure of a winter storm producing heavy precipitation over Nova Scotia. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 411–426.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Strapp, J. W., R. A. Stuart, and G. A. Isaac, 1996: A Canadian climatology of freezing precipitation, and a detailed study using data from St. John’s, Newfoundland. Proc. Int. Conf. on In-flight Icing, Vol. II, Springfield, VA, Federal Aviation Administration, DOT/FAA/AR-96/81, 45–55.

  • Stuart, R. A., and G. A. Issac, 1999: Freezing precipitation in Canada. Atmos.–Ocean,37, 87–102.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Szoke, E. J., 1991: Eye of the Denver Cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 1283–1292.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, G., R. T. Bruintjes, B. G. Brown, and F. Hage, 1997: Intercomparison of in-flight icing algorithms. Part I: WISP94 real-time icing prediction and evaluation program. Wea. Forecasting,12, 878–889.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Tremblay, A., and A. Glazer, 2000: An improved modeling scheme for freezing precipitation forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev.,128, 1289–1308.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Twomey, S., and T. A. Wojciechowski, 1969: Observations of the geographical variation of cloud nuclei. J. Atmos. Sci.,26, 684–688.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Vilcans, J., and D. Burnham, 1989: Climatological study to determine the impact of icing on the Low Level Windshear Alert System. Department of Transportation Tech. Rep. DOT-TSC-FAA-89-2, Vol. 1, 11 pp. [Available from U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA 02142.].

  • Young, W. R., 1978: Freezing precipitation in the southeastern United States. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Meteorology, Texas A&M University, 123 pp. [Available from Working Collection, Rm. 1103 Eller O&M Bldg., Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3150.].

  • Zerr, R. J., 1997: Freezing rain: An observational and theoretical study. J. Appl. Meteor.,36, 1647–1661.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zishka, K. M., and P. J. Smith, 1980: The climatology of cyclones and anticyclones over North America and surrounding ocean environs for January and July, 1950–77. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 387–401.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 151 151 17
PDF Downloads 139 139 12

Regional and Local Influences on Freezing Drizzle, Freezing Rain,and Ice Pellet Events

View More View Less
  • 1 Research Applications Program, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

Regional and local influences on frequency and type of freezing precipitation (freezing drizzle, freezing rain, and ice pellets) are investigated via in-depth climatologies of six continental United States (CONUS) sounding sites. For each site, wind roses of precipitation type occurrences are compared with those for nearby stations and the aggregate values for the CONUS. Synoptic scenarios and sounding structures are identified for prolonged events of each precipitation type and probable formation mechanisms are discussed. Station location relative to topographic features smaller than 1 km in height, water bodies ranging in size from oceans to small bays, and dominant wintertime storm tracks are shown to play a major role in the determination of the frequency and type of freezing precipitation at each site. Results help to explain the regional maxima and minima of freezing precipitation across the CONUS, as well as the dominance of certain precipitation types and formation mechanisms in different portions thereof. Understanding these differences is necessary for proper development of techniques used to diagnose and forecast surface precipitation type and the occurrence of hazardous aircraft icing conditions associated with freezing precipitation aloft.

Corresponding author address: Ben C. Bernstein, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000.

Email: bernstei@rap.ucar.edu

Abstract

Regional and local influences on frequency and type of freezing precipitation (freezing drizzle, freezing rain, and ice pellets) are investigated via in-depth climatologies of six continental United States (CONUS) sounding sites. For each site, wind roses of precipitation type occurrences are compared with those for nearby stations and the aggregate values for the CONUS. Synoptic scenarios and sounding structures are identified for prolonged events of each precipitation type and probable formation mechanisms are discussed. Station location relative to topographic features smaller than 1 km in height, water bodies ranging in size from oceans to small bays, and dominant wintertime storm tracks are shown to play a major role in the determination of the frequency and type of freezing precipitation at each site. Results help to explain the regional maxima and minima of freezing precipitation across the CONUS, as well as the dominance of certain precipitation types and formation mechanisms in different portions thereof. Understanding these differences is necessary for proper development of techniques used to diagnose and forecast surface precipitation type and the occurrence of hazardous aircraft icing conditions associated with freezing precipitation aloft.

Corresponding author address: Ben C. Bernstein, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000.

Email: bernstei@rap.ucar.edu

Save