The Joint Polarization Experiment: Polarimetric Radar in Forecasting and Warning Decision Making

Kevin A. Scharfenberg Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by Kevin A. Scharfenberg in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Daniel J. Miller NOAA/National Weather Service, Weather Forecast Office, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by Daniel J. Miller in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Terry J. Schuur Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by Terry J. Schuur in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Paul T. Schlatter Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by Paul T. Schlatter in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Scott E. Giangrande Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by Scott E. Giangrande in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Valery M. Melnikov Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by Valery M. Melnikov in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Donald W. Burgess Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by Donald W. Burgess in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
David L. Andra Jr. NOAA/National Weather Service, Weather Forecast Office, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by David L. Andra Jr. in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Michael P. Foster NOAA/National Weather Service, Weather Forecast Office, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by Michael P. Foster in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
John M. Krause Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

Search for other papers by John M. Krause in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

To test the utility and added value of polarimetric radar products in an operational environment, data from the Norman, Oklahoma (KOUN), polarimetric Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) were delivered to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Norman as part of the Joint Polarization Experiment (JPOLE). KOUN polarimetric base data and algorithms were used at the WFO during the decision-making and forecasting processes for severe convection, flash floods, and winter storms. The delivery included conventional WSR-88D radar products, base polarimetric radar variables, a polarimetric hydrometeor classification algorithm, and experimental polarimetric quantitative precipitation estimation algorithms. The JPOLE data collection, delivery, and operational demonstration are described, with examples of several forecast and warning decision-making successes. Polarimetric data aided WFO forecasters during several periods of heavy rain, numerous large-hail-producing thunderstorms, tornadic and nontornadic supercell thunderstorms, and a major winter storm. Upcoming opportunities and challenges associated with the emergence of polarimetric radar data in the operational community are also described.

* Additional affiliation: NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma

+Additional affiliation: NOAA/National Weather Service, Warning Decision Training Branch, Norman, Oklahoma

Corresponding author address: Kevin A. Scharfenberg, NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, 1313 Halley Circle, Norman, OK 73069. Email: Kevin.Scharfenberg@noaa.gov

Abstract

To test the utility and added value of polarimetric radar products in an operational environment, data from the Norman, Oklahoma (KOUN), polarimetric Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) were delivered to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Norman as part of the Joint Polarization Experiment (JPOLE). KOUN polarimetric base data and algorithms were used at the WFO during the decision-making and forecasting processes for severe convection, flash floods, and winter storms. The delivery included conventional WSR-88D radar products, base polarimetric radar variables, a polarimetric hydrometeor classification algorithm, and experimental polarimetric quantitative precipitation estimation algorithms. The JPOLE data collection, delivery, and operational demonstration are described, with examples of several forecast and warning decision-making successes. Polarimetric data aided WFO forecasters during several periods of heavy rain, numerous large-hail-producing thunderstorms, tornadic and nontornadic supercell thunderstorms, and a major winter storm. Upcoming opportunities and challenges associated with the emergence of polarimetric radar data in the operational community are also described.

* Additional affiliation: NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma

+Additional affiliation: NOAA/National Weather Service, Warning Decision Training Branch, Norman, Oklahoma

Corresponding author address: Kevin A. Scharfenberg, NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, 1313 Halley Circle, Norman, OK 73069. Email: Kevin.Scharfenberg@noaa.gov

Save
  • Askelson, M. A., Straka J. M. , and Gordon B. A. , 1998: The kinematic and microphysical evolution of the 22 June 1995 storm. Preprints, 19th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Minneapolis, MN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 56–59.

  • Aydin, K., Seliga T. A. , and Balaji V. , 1986: Remote sensing of hail with a dual linear polarization radar. J. Appl. Meteor., 25 , 14751484.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balakrishnan, N., and Zrnić D. S. , 1990: Use of polarization to characterize precipitation and discriminate large hail. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 15251540.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandes, E. A., Vivekanandan J. , Tuttle J. D. , and Kessinger C. J. , 1995: A study of thunderstorm microphysics with multiparameter radar and aircraft observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 31293143.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandes, E. A., Zhang G. , and Vivekanandan J. , 2002: Experiments in rainfall estimation with a polarimetric radar in a subtropical environment. J. Appl. Meteor., 41 , 674685.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branick, M. L., 1985: Synoptic pattern types associated with heavy snowfall events in Oklahoma. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS SR-112, 38–46. [Available from NWS Southern Region Headquarters, Rm. 10A26, 819 Taylor St., Fort Worth, TX 76102.].

  • Branick, M. L., cited. 2002: Monthly and geographic distribution of heavy snow events in Oklahoma, 1951–2001. Tech. Attach. 2002-09, National Weather Service Southern Region. [Available online at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/topics/attach/html/ssd02-09.htm.].

  • Bringi, V. N., and Chandrasekar V. , 2001: Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar: Principles and Applications. Cambridge University Press, 636 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bringi, V. N., Burrows D. A. , and Menon S. M. , 1991: Multiparameter radar and aircraft study of raindrop spectral evolution in warm-based clouds. J. Appl. Meteor., 30 , 853880.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bringi, V. N., Chandrasekar V. , and Hubbert J. , 2003: Raindrop size distribution in different climatic regimes from disdrometer and dual-polarized radar analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 354365.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Conway, J. W., and Zrnić D. S. , 1993: A study of embryo production and hail growth using dual-Doppler and multi-parameter radars. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 25112528.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doviak, R. J., and Zrnić D. S. , 1993: Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. 2d ed. Academic Press, 562 pp.

  • Hall, M. P. M., Cherry S. M. , Goddard J. W. , and Kennedy G. R. , 1980: Raindrop sizes and rainfall rate measured by dual-polarization radar. Nature, 285 , 195198.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, M. P. M., Goddard J. W. F. , and Cherry S. M. , 1984: Identification of hydrometeors and other targets by dual-polarization radar. Radio Sci., 19 , 132140.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heinselman, P. L., and Ryzhkov A. V. , 2004: Hail detection during the Joint Polarization Experiment. Preprints, 22d Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, J1.3.

  • Höller, H., Bringi V. N. , Hubbert J. , Hagen M. , and Meischner P. F. , 1994: Life cycle and precipitation formation in a hybrid-type hailstorm revealed by polarimetric and Doppler radar measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 25002522.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hondl, K. D., 2002: Current and planned activities for the Warning Decision Support System-Integrated Information (WDSS-II). Preprints, 21st Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 146–148.

  • Hubbert, J., Bringi V. N. , Carey L. D. , and Bolen S. , 1998: CSU-CHILL polarimetric radar measurements from a severe hail storm in eastern Colorado. J. Appl. Meteor., 37 , 749775.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ikeda, K., and Brandes E. A. , 2003: Freezing level determinations with polarimetric radar: Retrieval model and application. Preprints, 31st Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 649–652.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kain, J. S., Goss S. M. , and Baldwin M. E. , 2000: The melting effect as a factor in precipitation-type forecasting. Wea. Forecasting, 15 , 700714.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, H., and Chandrasekar V. , 2000: Classification of hydrometeors based on polarimetric radar measurements: Development of fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy systems, and in situ verification. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17 , 140164.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loney, M. L., Zrnić D. S. , Straka J. M. , and Ryzhkov A. V. , 2002: Enhanced polarimetric radar signatures above the melting level in a supercell storm. J. Appl. Meteor., 41 , 11791194.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melnikov, V. M., Zrnić D. S. , Doviak R. J. , and Carter J. K. , 2003: Calibration and performance analysis of NSSL’s polarimetric WSR-88D. National Severe Storms Laboratory Report, 77 pp. [Available from NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, 1313 Halley Circle, Norman, OK 73069; also available online at http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/88d-upgrades/WSR-88D_reports.html.].

  • Miller, D. J., and Scharfenberg K. , 2003: The use of polarimetric radar data in the winter weather warning decision making process: A case study. Preprints, 31st Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 976–979.

  • Quoetone, E. M., Andra D. L. , Bunting W. F. , and Jones D. , 2001: Impacts of technology and situation awareness on decision making: Operational observations from National Weather Service Warning forecasters during the historic May 3 1999 tornado outbreak. Proc. 45th Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 419–423. [Available from HFES Headquarters, P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369.].

  • Ryzhkov, A. V., Zrnić D. S. , and Gordon B. A. , 1998: Polarimetric method for ice water content determination. J. Appl. Meteor., 37 , 125134.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryzhkov, A. V., Janish J. M. , Schuur T. J. , Zhang P. , and Elmore K. L. , 2002: Dual-polarization radar as a tool for operational identification of different types of meteorological and non–meteorological targets. Preprints, 10th Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 104–107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryzhkov, A. V., Giangrande S. , and Schuur T. , 2005a: Rainfall estimation with a polarimetric prototype of the WSR-88D radar. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 502515.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryzhkov, A. V., Schuur T. J. , Burgess D. W. , and Zrnić D. S. , 2005b: Polarimetric tornado detection. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 557570.

  • Ryzhkov, A. V., Schuur T. J. , Burgess D. W. , Heinselman P. L. , Giangrande S. E. , and Zrnić D. S. , 2005c: The Joint Polarization Experiment: Polarimetric rainfall measurements and hydrometeor classification. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86 , 809824.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sachidananda, M., and Zrnić D. S. , 1987: Rain rate estimates from differential polarization measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 4 , 588598.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scharfenberg, K. A., 2003: Polarimetric radar signatures in microburst-producing thunderstorms. Preprints, 31st Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 581–584.

  • Scharfenberg, K. A., and Maxwell E. , 2003: Operational use of a hydrometeor classification algorithm to detect the snow melting level. Preprints, 31st Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 639–641.

  • Schlatter, P. T., 2003: Polarimetric radar and in situ measurements of a hook echo. M.S. thesis, School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, 97 pp. [Available from School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Suite 1310, 100 East Boyd St., Norman, OK 73019.].

  • Schuur, T., Ryzhkov A. , Heinselman P. , Zrnić D. , Burgess D. , and Scharfenberg K. , 2003a: Observation and classification of echoes with the polarimetric WSR-88D radar. National Severe Storms Laboratory Report, 46 pp. [Available from NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, 1313 Halley Circle, Norman, OK 73069.].

  • Schuur, T., Heinselman P. , Scharfenberg K. , Ryzhkov A. , Zrnić D. , Melnikov V. , and Krause J. , 2003b: Overview of the Joint Polarization Experiment (JPOLE). National Severe Storms Laboratory Report, 39 pp. [Available from NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, 1313 Halley Circle, Norman, OK 73069; also available online at http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/88d-upgrades/WSR-88D_reports.html.].

  • Seliga, T. A., and Bringi V. N. , 1976: Potential use of radar differential reflectivity measurements at orthogonal polarizations for measuring precipitation. J. Appl. Meteor., 15 , 6976.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seliga, T. A., and Bringi V. N. , 1978: Differential reflectivity and differential phase shift: Applications in radar meteorology. Radio Sci., 13 , 271275.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Straka, J. M., Zrnić D. S. , and Ryzhkov A. V. , 2000: Bulk hydrometeor classification and quantification using polarimetric radar data: Synthesis of relations. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 13411372.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulbrich, C. W., and Atlas D. , 1984: Assessment of the contribution of differential polarization to improved rainfall measurements. Radio Sci., 19 , 4957.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vivekanandan, J., Zrnić D. S. , Ellis S. M. , Oye R. , Ryzhkov A. V. , and Straka J. , 1999: Cloud microphysics retrieval using S-band dual-polarization radar measurements. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80 , 381388.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weygandt, S. S., Shapiro A. , and Droegemeier K. , 2002: Retrieval of model initial fields from single-Doppler observations of a supercell thunderstorm. Part II: Thermodynamic retrieval and numerical prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 454476.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zrnić, D. S., and Ryzhkov A. V. , 1999: Polarimetry for weather surveillance radars. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80 , 389406.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zrnić, D. S., and Ryzhkov A. V. , 2004: Polarimetric properties of chaff. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21 , 10171024.

  • Zrnić, D. S., Ryzhkov A. V. , Straka J. , Liu Y. , and Vivekanandan J. , 2001: Testing a procedure for automatic classification of hydrometeor types. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 18 , 892913.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 829 304 23
PDF Downloads 329 117 17