Hindcasting the January 2009 Arctic Sudden Stratospheric Warming with Unified Parameterization of Orographic Drag in NOGAPS. Part II: Short-Range Data-Assimilated Forecast and the Impacts of Calibrated Radiance Bias Correction

Young-Joon Kim Marine Meteorology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California

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William Campbell Marine Meteorology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California

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Benjamin Ruston Marine Meteorology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California

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Abstract

This study is Part II of the effort to improve the forecasting of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events by using a version of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) that covers the full stratosphere. In Part I, extended-range (3 week) hindcast experiments (without data assimilation) for the January 2009 Arctic major SSW were performed using NOGAPS with a unified orographic drag parameterization that consists of the schemes employed by Webster et al., as well as Kim and Arakawa and Kim and Doyle. Part I demonstrated that the model with upgraded middle-atmospheric orographic drag physics better forecasts the magnitude and evolution of the SSW and better simulates the trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. In this study (Part II), a series of 5-day hindcast experiments is performed with cycling data assimilation using the Naval Research Laboratory Atmospheric Variational Data Assimilation System-Accelerated Representer (NAVDAS-AR), a four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) system. Further efforts are made to improve the hindcasting of SSW by improving the satellite radiance bias correction process that strongly affects the data assimilation. The innovation (observation minus background) limit is optimally determined to reduce the rejection of useful radiance data. It is found that when the innovation limit is properly set, both the analysis and forecast of the SSW event can be improved, and that the orographic drag helps improve the SSW forecast.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Young-Joon Kim, Marine Meteorology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Stop 2, Monterey, CA 93943. E-mail: yj.kim@nrlmry.navy.mil

Abstract

This study is Part II of the effort to improve the forecasting of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events by using a version of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) that covers the full stratosphere. In Part I, extended-range (3 week) hindcast experiments (without data assimilation) for the January 2009 Arctic major SSW were performed using NOGAPS with a unified orographic drag parameterization that consists of the schemes employed by Webster et al., as well as Kim and Arakawa and Kim and Doyle. Part I demonstrated that the model with upgraded middle-atmospheric orographic drag physics better forecasts the magnitude and evolution of the SSW and better simulates the trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. In this study (Part II), a series of 5-day hindcast experiments is performed with cycling data assimilation using the Naval Research Laboratory Atmospheric Variational Data Assimilation System-Accelerated Representer (NAVDAS-AR), a four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) system. Further efforts are made to improve the hindcasting of SSW by improving the satellite radiance bias correction process that strongly affects the data assimilation. The innovation (observation minus background) limit is optimally determined to reduce the rejection of useful radiance data. It is found that when the innovation limit is properly set, both the analysis and forecast of the SSW event can be improved, and that the orographic drag helps improve the SSW forecast.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Young-Joon Kim, Marine Meteorology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Stop 2, Monterey, CA 93943. E-mail: yj.kim@nrlmry.navy.mil
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