• Ashley, W. S., Mote T. L. , Dixon P. G. , Trotter S. L. , Powell E. J. , Durkee J. D. , and Grundstein A. J. , 2003: Distribution of mesoscale convective complex rainfall in the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 30033017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Augustine, J. A., Woodley W. L. , Scott R. W. , and Changnon S. A. , 1994: Using geosynchronous satellite imagery to estimate summer-season rainfall over the Great Lakes. J. Great Lakes Res., 20, 683700.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, G. H., Knievel J. C. , and Parker M. D. , 2006: A multimodel assessment of RKW theory’s relevance to squall-line characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 27722792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fowle, M. A., and Roebber P. J. , 2003: Short-range (0–48 h) numerical prediction of convective occurrence, mode, and location. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 782794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallus, W. A., Jr., Snook N. A. , and Johnson E. V. , 2008: Spring and summer severe weather reports over the Midwest as a function of convective mode: A preliminary study. Wea. Forecasting, 23, 101113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, R., Bentley M. , Sparks J. , Dukesherer B. , and Evans J. , 2004: Lower Michigan MCS climatology: Trends, pattern types, and marine layer impacts. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 7B.6. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/81343.pdf.]

  • Laing, A. G., and Fritsch J. M. , 1997: The global population of mesoscale convective complexes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 389405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lericos, T. P., Fuelberg H. E. , Weisman M. L. , and Watson A. I. , 2007: Numerical simulations of the effects of coastlines on the evolution of strong, long-lived squall lines. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 17101731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, M. D., 2008: Response of simulated squall lines to low-level cooling. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 13231341.

  • Rotunno, R., Klemp J. B. , and Weisman M. L. , 1988: A theory for strong, long-lived squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 463485.

  • Scott, R. W., and Huff F. A. , 1996: Impacts of the Great Lakes on regional climate conditions. J. Great Lakes Res., 22, 845863.

  • Weisman, M. L., and Rotunno R. , 2004: “A theory for strong, long-lived squall lines” revisited. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 361382.

  • Weisman, M. L., Klemp J. B. , and Rotunno R. , 1988: Structure and evolution of numerically simulated squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 19902013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 140 95 0
PDF Downloads 68 44 0

Influence of the Lake Erie Overlake Boundary Layer on Deep Convective Storm Evolution

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, and Center for Atmospheric Science, Illinois State Water Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois
  • | 2 Center for Atmospheric Science, Illinois State Water Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois
  • | 3 Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York
  • | 4 NOAA/National Weather Service Forecast Office, Cleveland, Ohio
  • | 5 NOAA/National Weather Service Forecast Office, Phoenix, Arizona
Restricted access

Abstract

The influence that the overlake boundary layer has on storm intensity and structure is not well understood. To improve scientists’ understanding of the evolution of storms crossing Lake Erie, 111 events during 2001–09 were examined using observations from Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D), surface, buoy, and rawinsonde sites. It was found that on average, all storm modes tended to weaken over the lake; however, considerable variability in changes of storm intensity existed, with some storms exhibiting steady-state or increasing intensity in specific environments. Noteworthy changes in the storm maximum reflectivity generally occurred within 60 min after storms crossed the upwind shoreline. Isolated and cluster storm modes exhibited much greater weakening than those storms organized into lines or convective complexes. The atmospheric parameters having the greatest influence on storm intensity over Lake Erie varied by mode. Isolated and cluster storms generally weakened more rapidly with increasingly cold overlake surface air temperatures. Linear and complex systems, on the other hand, tended to exhibit constant or increasing maximum reflectivity with cooler overlake surface air temperatures. It is suggested that strongly stable conditions near the lake surface limit the amount of boundary layer air ingested into storms in these cases.

Current affiliation: Systems Research Group, Inc., NOAA/Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, Camp Springs, Maryland.

Corresponding author address: David Kristovich, ISWS, PRI, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 2204 Griffith Dr., Champaign, IL 61820. E-mail: dkristo@illinois.edu

Abstract

The influence that the overlake boundary layer has on storm intensity and structure is not well understood. To improve scientists’ understanding of the evolution of storms crossing Lake Erie, 111 events during 2001–09 were examined using observations from Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D), surface, buoy, and rawinsonde sites. It was found that on average, all storm modes tended to weaken over the lake; however, considerable variability in changes of storm intensity existed, with some storms exhibiting steady-state or increasing intensity in specific environments. Noteworthy changes in the storm maximum reflectivity generally occurred within 60 min after storms crossed the upwind shoreline. Isolated and cluster storm modes exhibited much greater weakening than those storms organized into lines or convective complexes. The atmospheric parameters having the greatest influence on storm intensity over Lake Erie varied by mode. Isolated and cluster storms generally weakened more rapidly with increasingly cold overlake surface air temperatures. Linear and complex systems, on the other hand, tended to exhibit constant or increasing maximum reflectivity with cooler overlake surface air temperatures. It is suggested that strongly stable conditions near the lake surface limit the amount of boundary layer air ingested into storms in these cases.

Current affiliation: Systems Research Group, Inc., NOAA/Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, Camp Springs, Maryland.

Corresponding author address: David Kristovich, ISWS, PRI, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 2204 Griffith Dr., Champaign, IL 61820. E-mail: dkristo@illinois.edu
Save