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Forecast Advisory for the Late Fall Heavy Rainfall/Flood Event in Central Vietnam Developed from Diagnostic Analysis

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  • 1 Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
  • | 2 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan
  • | 3 Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
  • | 4 Environmental Modeling Center, National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Camp Springs, Maryland
  • | 5 Aero-Meteorological Observatory, National Hydro-Meteorological Services of Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam
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Abstract

The formations of heavy rainfall/flood (HRF) events in Vietnam are studied from diagnostic analyses of 31 events during the period 1979–2009. HRF events develop from the cold surge vortices formed around the Philippines. These vortices’ speed, size, and rainfall, which evolve into HRF events, are enhanced distinguishably from non-HRF vortices, as they reach Vietnam. The HRF cyclone, the North Pacific anticyclone, and the northwestern Pacific explosive cyclone simultaneously reach their maximum intensities when the HRF event occurs. An HRF cyclone attains its maximum intensity by the in-phase constructive interference of three monsoon (30–60, 12–24, and 5 days) modes identified by the spectral analysis of zonal winds. The rainfall center of an HRF event is formed and maintained by the in-phase constructive interference of rainfall and convergence of water vapor flux anomalies, respectively, from three monsoon modes. Forecast times of regional models are dependent and constrained on the scale of the limited domain. For 5-day forecasts, a global or at least a hemispheric model is necessary. Using the salient features described above, a 5-day forecast advisory is introduced to supplement forecasts of HRF events made by the global model. Non-HRF vortices are filtered by threshold values for the deepening rate of explosive cyclones and basic characteristics of the HRF events predicted by the global model. A necessary condition for an HRF event is the in-phase superposition of the three monsoon modes. One-week forecasts for 12 HRF events issued by the NCEP Global Forecast System are tested. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the forecast advisory to predict the occurrence dates of HRF events.

Corresponding author address: Tsing-Chang “Mike” Chen, Atmospheric Science Program, Dept. of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, 3010 Agronomy Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011. E-mail: tmchen@iastate.edu

Abstract

The formations of heavy rainfall/flood (HRF) events in Vietnam are studied from diagnostic analyses of 31 events during the period 1979–2009. HRF events develop from the cold surge vortices formed around the Philippines. These vortices’ speed, size, and rainfall, which evolve into HRF events, are enhanced distinguishably from non-HRF vortices, as they reach Vietnam. The HRF cyclone, the North Pacific anticyclone, and the northwestern Pacific explosive cyclone simultaneously reach their maximum intensities when the HRF event occurs. An HRF cyclone attains its maximum intensity by the in-phase constructive interference of three monsoon (30–60, 12–24, and 5 days) modes identified by the spectral analysis of zonal winds. The rainfall center of an HRF event is formed and maintained by the in-phase constructive interference of rainfall and convergence of water vapor flux anomalies, respectively, from three monsoon modes. Forecast times of regional models are dependent and constrained on the scale of the limited domain. For 5-day forecasts, a global or at least a hemispheric model is necessary. Using the salient features described above, a 5-day forecast advisory is introduced to supplement forecasts of HRF events made by the global model. Non-HRF vortices are filtered by threshold values for the deepening rate of explosive cyclones and basic characteristics of the HRF events predicted by the global model. A necessary condition for an HRF event is the in-phase superposition of the three monsoon modes. One-week forecasts for 12 HRF events issued by the NCEP Global Forecast System are tested. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the forecast advisory to predict the occurrence dates of HRF events.

Corresponding author address: Tsing-Chang “Mike” Chen, Atmospheric Science Program, Dept. of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, 3010 Agronomy Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011. E-mail: tmchen@iastate.edu
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