• Bélanger, J.-B., 1828: Essai sur la Solution Numérique de quelques Problèmes Relatifs au Mouvement Permanent des Eaux Courantes (Essay on the numerical solution of some problems relative to steady flow of water). Carilian-Goeury, 38 pp. and 5 tables.

  • Benjamin, T. B., and Lighthill J. , 1954: On cnoidal waves and bores. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 224A, 448460.

  • Christie, D. R., 1989: Long nonlinear waves in the lower atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 14621491.

  • Christie, D. R., and Muirhead K. J. , 1983: Solitary waves: A hazard to aircraft operating at low altitudes. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 31, 97109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christie, D. R., Muirhead K. J. , and Hales A. L. , 1978: On solitary waves in the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 805825.

  • Clarke, J. C., 1998: An atmospheric undular bore along the Texas coast. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1098.

  • Clarke, R. H., 1984: Colliding sea-breezes and the creation of internal atmospheric bore waves: Two-dimensional numerical studies. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 32, 207226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, R. H., Smith R. K. , and Reid D. G. , 1981: The morning glory of the Gulf of Carpentaria: An atmospheric undular bore. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 17261750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coleman, T. A., and Knupp K. R. , 2011: Radiometer and profiler analysis of the effects of a bore and a solitary wave on the stability of the nocturnal boundary layer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 211223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coleman, T. A., Knupp K. R. , and Herzmann D. , 2009: The spectacular undular bore in Iowa on 2 October 2007. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 495503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coleman, T. A., Knupp K. R. , and Herzmann D. , 2010: An undular bore and gravity waves illustrated by dramatic time-lapse photography. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 27, 13551361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crook, N. A., 1986: The effect of ambient stratification and moisture on the motion of atmospheric undular bores. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 171181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crook, N. A., 1988: Trapping of low-level internal gravity waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 15331541.

  • Froude, W., 1872: Experiments on the surface-friction experienced by a plane moving through water. 42nd Meeting of British Association for the Advancement of Science, Brighton, United Kingdom, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 118–124.

  • Fulton, R., Zrnić D. S. , and Doviak R. J. , 1990: Initiation of a solitary wave family in the demise of a nocturnal thunderstorm density current. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 319337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geerts, B., Damiani R. , and Haimov S. , 2006: Finescale vertical structure of a cold front as revealed by airborne Doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 251271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goler, R. A., 2009: Eastward-propagating undular bores over Cape York Peninsula. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 26322645.

  • Hartung, D. C., Otkin J. A. , Martin J. E. , and Turner D. , 2010: The life cycle of an undular bore and its interaction with a shallow, intense cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 886908.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karyampudi, V. M., Koch S. E. , Rottman J. W. , and Kaplan M. L. , 1995: The influence of the Rocky Mountains in the 13–14 April 1986 severe weather outbreak. Part II: Evolution of an internal bore and its role in triggering a squall line. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 14231446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knupp, K., 2006: Observational analysis of a gust front to bore to solitary wave transition within an evolving nocturnal boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 20162035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koch, S. E., and Clark W. , 1999: A nonclassical cold front observed during COPS-91: Frontal structure and the process of severe storm initiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 28622890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koch, S. E., Dorian P. B. , Ferrare R. , Melfi S. H. , Skillman W. C. , and Whiteman D. , 1991: Structure of an internal bore and dissipating gravity current as revealed by Raman lidar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 857887.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koch, S. E., Pagowski M. , Wilson J. W. , Fabry F. , Flamant C. , Feltz W. , Schwemmer G. , and Geerts B. , 2005: The structure and dynamics of atmospheric bores and solitons as determined from remote sensing and modeling experiments during IHOP. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Mesoscale Processes/32nd Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Albuquerque, NM, Amer. Meteor. Soc., JP6J.4. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/97033.pdf.]

  • Koch, S. E., Feltz W. F. , Fabry F. , Pagowski M. , Geerts B. , Bedka K. M. , Miller D. O. , and Wilson J. W. , 2008a: Turbulent mixing processes in atmospheric bores and solitary waves deduced from profiling systems and numerical simulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 13731400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koch, S. E., Flamant C. , Wilson J. M. , Gentry B. M. , and Jamison B. D. , 2008b: An atmospheric soliton observed with Doppler radar, differential absorption lidar, and molecular Doppler lidar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 25, 12671287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Locatelli, J. D., Stoelinga M. T. , Hobbs P. V. , and Johnson J. , 1998: Structure and evaluation of an undular bore on the high plains and its effect on migrating birds. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 10431060.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahapatra, P. R., Doviak R. J. , and Zrnić D. S. , 1991: Multisensor observation of an atmospheric undular bore. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72, 14681480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rottman, J. W., and Simpson J. E. , 1989: The formation of internal bores in the atmosphere: A laboratory model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115, 941963.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, D. M., 2004: Cold fronts with and without prefrontal wind shifts in the central United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 20402053.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, D. M., 2005: A review cold fronts with prefrontal troughs and wind shifts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 24492472.

  • Scorer, R., 1949: Theory of waves in the lee of mountains. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 75, 4156.

  • Simpson, J. E., 1982: Gravity currents in the laboratory, atmosphere, and ocean. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 14, 213234.

  • Smith, R. K., and Reeder M. J. , 1988: On the movement and low-level structure of cold fronts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 19271944.

  • Tepper, M., 1950: A proposed mechanism of squall lines: The pressure jump line. J. Meteor., 7, 2129.

  • Young, G. S., and Johnson R. H. , 1984: Meso- and microscalefeatures of a Colorado cold front. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23, 13151325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 2 2 2
PDF Downloads 1 1 1

A Proposal for Analyzing and Forecasting Lower-Atmospheric Undular Bores in the Western Gulf of Mexico Region

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Meteorology, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
Restricted access

Abstract

A method is presented for analyzing and forecasting the occurrence of lower-atmospheric undular bores over the western and central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and adjacent land areas using standard operational forecasting and analysis techniques. The method is based on research that has identified a set of sufficient conditions associated with these occurrences realized by observations of the phenomena in recent years and is grounded in the theoretical understanding of undular bores developed during the last century by fluid dynamicists. The approach discusses practical approximations to the theory that allows the operational forecaster to use output from standard numerical and statistical forecast models. In addition to providing an operational method for forecasting the time and location of occurrence, the technique provides a methodology for analyzing and anticipating the strength, forward speed, and horizontal wavelength of the phenomena.

Corresponding author address: Philip A. Lutzak, 70 Prospect Park SW, No. 3F, Brooklyn, NY 11215. E-mail: pzl112@psu.edu

Abstract

A method is presented for analyzing and forecasting the occurrence of lower-atmospheric undular bores over the western and central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and adjacent land areas using standard operational forecasting and analysis techniques. The method is based on research that has identified a set of sufficient conditions associated with these occurrences realized by observations of the phenomena in recent years and is grounded in the theoretical understanding of undular bores developed during the last century by fluid dynamicists. The approach discusses practical approximations to the theory that allows the operational forecaster to use output from standard numerical and statistical forecast models. In addition to providing an operational method for forecasting the time and location of occurrence, the technique provides a methodology for analyzing and anticipating the strength, forward speed, and horizontal wavelength of the phenomena.

Corresponding author address: Philip A. Lutzak, 70 Prospect Park SW, No. 3F, Brooklyn, NY 11215. E-mail: pzl112@psu.edu
Save