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Tropical Cyclogenesis in the Western North Pacific as Revealed by the 2008–09 YOTC Data

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  • 1 Department of Geosciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, and International Pacific Research Center, and Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
  • | 2 International Pacific Research Center, and Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, and Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, and College of Atmospheric Science, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
  • | 3 Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California
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Abstract

The Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) high-resolution global reanalysis dataset was analyzed to reveal precursor synoptic-scale disturbances related to tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the western North Pacific (WNP) during the 2008–09 typhoon seasons. A time filtering is applied to the data to isolate synoptic (3–10 day), quasi-biweekly (10–20 day), and intraseasonal (20–90 day) time-scale components. The results show that four types of precursor synoptic disturbances associated with TC genesis can be identified in the YOTC data. They are 1) Rossby wave trains associated with preexisting TC energy dispersion (TCED) (24%), 2) synoptic wave trains (SWTs) unrelated to TCED (32%), 3) easterly waves (EWs) (16%), and 4) a combination of either TCED-EW or SWT-EW (24%). The percentage of identifiable genesis events is higher than has been found in previous analyses.

Most of the genesis events occurred when atmospheric quasi-biweekly and intraseasonal oscillations are in an active phase, suggesting a large-scale control of low-frequency oscillations on TC formation in the WNP. For genesis events associated with SWT and EW, maximum vorticity was confined in the lower troposphere. During the formation of Jangmi (2008), maximum Rossby wave energy dispersion appeared in the middle troposphere. This differs from other TCED cases in which energy dispersion is strongest at low level. As a result, the midlevel vortex from Rossby wave energy dispersion grew faster during the initial development stage of Jangmi.

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology Contribution Number 8926 and International Pacific Research Center Contribution Number 979.

Corresponding author address: Tim Li, IPRC, and Dept. of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822. E-mail: timli@hawaii.edu

Abstract

The Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) high-resolution global reanalysis dataset was analyzed to reveal precursor synoptic-scale disturbances related to tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the western North Pacific (WNP) during the 2008–09 typhoon seasons. A time filtering is applied to the data to isolate synoptic (3–10 day), quasi-biweekly (10–20 day), and intraseasonal (20–90 day) time-scale components. The results show that four types of precursor synoptic disturbances associated with TC genesis can be identified in the YOTC data. They are 1) Rossby wave trains associated with preexisting TC energy dispersion (TCED) (24%), 2) synoptic wave trains (SWTs) unrelated to TCED (32%), 3) easterly waves (EWs) (16%), and 4) a combination of either TCED-EW or SWT-EW (24%). The percentage of identifiable genesis events is higher than has been found in previous analyses.

Most of the genesis events occurred when atmospheric quasi-biweekly and intraseasonal oscillations are in an active phase, suggesting a large-scale control of low-frequency oscillations on TC formation in the WNP. For genesis events associated with SWT and EW, maximum vorticity was confined in the lower troposphere. During the formation of Jangmi (2008), maximum Rossby wave energy dispersion appeared in the middle troposphere. This differs from other TCED cases in which energy dispersion is strongest at low level. As a result, the midlevel vortex from Rossby wave energy dispersion grew faster during the initial development stage of Jangmi.

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology Contribution Number 8926 and International Pacific Research Center Contribution Number 979.

Corresponding author address: Tim Li, IPRC, and Dept. of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822. E-mail: timli@hawaii.edu
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