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Improved Nowcasts by Blending Extrapolation and Model Forecasts

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  • 1 Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, and School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, and National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 2 Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, and National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 3 Climate Corporation, Seattle, Washington
  • | 4 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, and National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma
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Abstract

Planning and managing commercial airplane routes to avoid thunderstorms requires very skillful and frequently updated 0–8-h forecasts of convection. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model is well suited for this purpose, being initialized hourly and providing explicit forecasts of convection out to 15 h. However, because of difficulties with depicting convection at the time of model initialization and shortly thereafter (i.e., during model spinup), relatively simple extrapolation techniques, on average, perform better than the HRRR at 0–2-h lead times. Thus, recently developed nowcasting techniques blend extrapolation-based forecasts with numerical weather prediction (NWP)-based forecasts, heavily weighting the extrapolation forecasts at 0–2-h lead times and transitioning emphasis to the NWP-based forecasts at the later lead times. In this study, a new approach to applying different weights to blend extrapolation and model forecasts based on intensities and forecast times is applied and tested. An image-processing method of morphing between extrapolation and model forecasts to create nowcasts is described and the skill is compared to extrapolation forecasts and forecasts from the HRRR. The new approach is called salient cross dissolve (Sal CD), which is compared to a commonly used method called linear cross dissolve (Lin CD). Examinations of forecasts and observations of the maximum altitude of echo-top heights ≥18 dBZ and measurement of forecast skill using neighborhood-based methods shows that Sal CD significantly improves upon Lin CD, as well as the HRRR at 2–5-h lead times.

Corresponding author address: Yunsung Hwang, School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, 120 David L. Boren Blvd., No. 5900, Norman, OK 73072. E-mail: yunsung.hwang@ou.edu

Abstract

Planning and managing commercial airplane routes to avoid thunderstorms requires very skillful and frequently updated 0–8-h forecasts of convection. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model is well suited for this purpose, being initialized hourly and providing explicit forecasts of convection out to 15 h. However, because of difficulties with depicting convection at the time of model initialization and shortly thereafter (i.e., during model spinup), relatively simple extrapolation techniques, on average, perform better than the HRRR at 0–2-h lead times. Thus, recently developed nowcasting techniques blend extrapolation-based forecasts with numerical weather prediction (NWP)-based forecasts, heavily weighting the extrapolation forecasts at 0–2-h lead times and transitioning emphasis to the NWP-based forecasts at the later lead times. In this study, a new approach to applying different weights to blend extrapolation and model forecasts based on intensities and forecast times is applied and tested. An image-processing method of morphing between extrapolation and model forecasts to create nowcasts is described and the skill is compared to extrapolation forecasts and forecasts from the HRRR. The new approach is called salient cross dissolve (Sal CD), which is compared to a commonly used method called linear cross dissolve (Lin CD). Examinations of forecasts and observations of the maximum altitude of echo-top heights ≥18 dBZ and measurement of forecast skill using neighborhood-based methods shows that Sal CD significantly improves upon Lin CD, as well as the HRRR at 2–5-h lead times.

Corresponding author address: Yunsung Hwang, School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, 120 David L. Boren Blvd., No. 5900, Norman, OK 73072. E-mail: yunsung.hwang@ou.edu
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