This paper proposes a new quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) technique to provide accurate rainfall estimates in complex terrain, where conventional QPE has limitations. The operational radar QPE in Taiwan is mainly based on the simplified relationship between radar reflectivity Z and rain rate R [R(Z) relation] and only utilizes the single-point lowest available echo to estimate rain rates, leading to low accuracy in complex terrain. Here, we conduct QPE using deep learning that extracts features from 3D radar reflectivities to address the above issues. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are used to analyze contoured frequency by altitude diagrams (CFADs) to generate the QPE. CNN models are trained on existing rain gauges in northern and eastern Taiwan with the 3-yr data during 2015–17 and validated and tested using 2018 data. The weights of heavy rains (≥10 mm h−1) are increased in the model loss calculation to handle the unbalanced rainfall data and improve accuracy. Results show that the CNN outperforms the R(Z) relation based on the 2018 rain gauge data. Furthermore, this research proposes methods to conduct 2D gridded QPE at every pixel by blending estimates from various trained CNN models. Verification based on independent rain gauges shows that the CNN QPE solves the underestimation of the R(Z) relation in mountainous areas. Case studies are presented to visualize the results, showing that the CNN QPE generates better small-scale rainfall features and more accurate precipitation information. This deep learning QPE technique may be helpful for the disaster prevention of small-scale flash floods in complex terrain.
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