Hail forecasts produced by the CAM-HAILCAST pseudo-Lagrangian hail size forecasting model were evaluated during the 2019, 2020, and 2021 NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) Spring Forecasting Experiments (SFEs). As part of this evaluation, HWT SFE participants were polled about their definition of a “good” hail forecast. Participants were presented with two different verification methods conducted over three different spatiotemporal scales, and were then asked to subjectively evaluate the hail forecast as well as the different verification methods themselves. Results recommended use of multiple verification methods tailored to the type of forecast expected by the end-user interpreting and applying the forecast. The hail forecasts evaluated during this period included an implementation of CAM-HAILCAST in the Limited Area Model of the Unified Forecast System with the Finite Volume 3 (FV3) dynamical core. Evaluation of FV3-HAILCAST over both 1- and 24-h periods found continued improvement from 2019 to 2021. The improvement was largely a result of wide intervariability among FV3 ensemble members with different microphysics parameterizations in 2019 lessening significantly during 2020 and 2021. Overprediction throughout the diurnal cycle also lessened by 2021. A combination of both upscaling neighborhood verification and an object-based technique that only retained matched convective objects was necessary to understand the improvement, agreeing with the HWT SFE participants’ recommendations for multiple verification methods.
“Good” forecasts of hail can be determined in multiple ways and must depend on both the performance of the guidance and the perspective of the end-user. This work looks at different verification strategies to capture the performance of the CAM-HAILCAST hail forecasting model across three years of the Spring Forecasting Experiment (SFE) in different parent models. Verification strategies were informed by SFE participant input via a survey. Skill variability among models decreased in SFE 2021 relative to prior SFEs. The FV3 model in 2021, compared to 2019, provided improved forecasts of both convective distribution and 38-mm (1.5 in.) hail size, as well as less overforecasting of convection from 1900 to 2300 UTC.
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